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Part I. Multivariate Scales Produced from WomanStats Data
A. Multivariate Scales
a. Scale #1: Physical Security of Women   MULTIVAR
MULTIVAR-SCALE-1:

Multivariate Scale #1 (Physical Security of Women) MULTIVAR-SCALE-1: Originally coded February 2007 (look for updates in database); Professor Mary Caprioli's Physical Security of Women Scale. WomanStats variables examined include DV (Law 1, Practice 1 and 2, Data 1 (Domestic Violence), LRW (Law 1, Practice 1 and 2, Data 1 (Rape and Sexual Assault), LRCM (Law 2, Practice 1 and 2, Data 1 (Marital Rape), MURDER (Practice 1, Data 1). In 2013, we also asked coders to examine newer variables as well, including EWCMS (Practice 3, Law 5, Data 2 and 3), GEW (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1), Suicide Practice 1, UVAW Practice 1, and LRCM Practice 2, Law 3, Data 2. We also asked coders to use the following scales as a check: Murder Scale 1, Suicide Scale 1, LRW Scales 4, 5, and 6. (NOTE: This scale does not include female infanticide, which is covered under the ISSA scales.)

0 – There are laws against domestic violence, rape, and marital rape; these laws are enforced; there are no taboos or norms against reporting these crimes, which are rare.  There are no honor killings or femicides.*

1 - There are laws against domestic violence, rape, and marital rape; these laws are generally enforced; there are taboos or norms against reporting these crimes (or ignorance that these are reportable crimes), which crimes are not common.  Honor killings and femicides do not occur.

2 - There are laws against domestic violence, rape, and marital rape; these laws are sporadically enforced; there are taboos or norms against reporting these crimes (or ignorance that these are reportable crimes), which are common.  Honor killings and/or femicides are quite rare, occurring only in small pockets of the population, and are condemned by society.

3 – There are laws against domestic violence, rape, but not necessarily marital rape; these laws are rarely enforced; there are taboos or norms against reporting these crimes (or ignorance that these are reportable crimes), which affect a majority of women.  Honor killings and/or femicides may occur among certain segments of society but are not generally accepted within the society.

4 – There are no or weak laws against domestic violence, rape, and marital rape, and these laws are not generally enforced.  Honor killings and/or femicides may occur and are either ignored or generally accepted.  (Examples of weak laws—need 4 male witnesses to prove rape, rape is only defined as sex with girls under 12—all other sex is by definition consensual, etc.)

*By the term femicide, we mean the targeted killing of women per se, though perhaps not for reasons of honor/shame. Practices that sanction murder where the overwhelming proportion of victims are female, but where there may be a few male victims, can be taken as femicide. One possible example is witchcraft killings.

A few coding rules:

  • Do not compare countries as you are coding.  Scale each one individually based on the data within WomanStats.
  • Don’t rely on statistics for DV, rape, etc.  Remember that women often do not report these crimes for reasons ranging from shame, corrupt judiciary & police, to the possibility of being killed.  Rely on the narratives to put the statistic in context.
  • The scale uses the term enforcement.  Here you should understand the lack of enforcement to include kangaroo courts (dishonest, corrupt, relying on norms that discriminate against women vs. law), high acquittal rates, and low punishment.
  • Whether or not a country is improving is irrelevant to the violence scale.  The only time improvements might be an issue would be in the unlikely event that the country falls between two scales.  If you think this is the case, then flag that score for discussion.
  • If you think there isn’t enough information on a country to code it properly, then assign a score of –99 and provide a justification.  Remember that the absence of complete information on crimes against women is in itself an indication.
  • Please write down any questions that you might have so that we can discuss them.  And also flag countries for which you know information is incomplete/lacking.
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b. Scale #2: Discrepancy Between National Law and Practice Concerning Women   MULTIVAR
MULTIVAR-SCALE-2:

Multivariate Scale #2 (Discrepancy Between National Law and Practice Concerning Women) MULTIVAR-SCALE-2: Originally coded July 2007 (look for updates in database). NOTE: Original 2007 coding includes decimals; for the 2009 coding, we moved to a straight ordinal scale with no decimals. Working under Professor Valerie Hudson's supervision, Carl Brinton created this Scale of the Degree of Discrepancy Between National Law and Practice on Issues Concerning Women in Society. This scale has three sub-clusters: Right to Physical Security/Bodily Integrity, which examines WomanStats variables INFIB (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1 (Infibulation)), LRW (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1 (Rape and Sexual Assault)); LRCM (Practice 1, Law 2, Data 1(Marital Rape)), DV (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1 (Domestic Violence)), TRAFF (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1 (Trafficking)), and which sub-cluster is weighted by three. The second sub-cluster is Right to Education, which examines WomanStats variables AFE (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1 (Access to Formal Education), ASR (Practice 1 and Law 1 (Area of Study Restrictions), and is unweighted. The third sub-cluster is Rights within the Family, which examines WomanStats variables AOM (Practice 1, Law 1, Data 1 (Age at First Marriage)), ATDW (Practice 2, Law 5 (Access to Divorce)), and MARR (Practice 1 and Law 1 (Volition in Marriage)), and is weighted by two. Brinton, now at Yale, has detailed descriptions about the operationalization of this scale that go far beyond what we are able to present in the codebook: please email him directly at gaokeren@gmail.com

Conceptual Framework: The CEDAW Convention speaks to the three sub-clusters examined in this variable, providing benchmarks for assessing state protection of the rights of women in these areas. More specifically,

1) Right to Education
CEDAW Article 10
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal rights with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same conditions for career and vocational guidance, for access to studies and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas; this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training;
(f) The reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of programmes for girls and women who have left school prematurely

2) Rights within the Family
CEDAW Article 16
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same right to enter into marriage;
(b) The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;
2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.

3) Right to Physical Security/Bodily Integrity
CEDAW Article 1 
 For the purposes of this Declaration, the term "violence against women" means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
CEDAW Article 2
Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following:
(a)   Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation;
(b)   Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution;
 (c)   Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.
CEDAW Article 4
 States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination.  States should pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women and, to this end, should:
 (a)   Consider, where they have not yet done so, ratifying or acceding to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women or withdrawing reservations to that Convention;
 (b)   Refrain from engaging in violence against women;
 (c)   Exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons;
 (d)   Develop penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs caused to women who are subjected to violence; women who are subjected to violence should be provided with access to the mechanisms of justice and, as provided for by national legislation, to just and effective remedies for the harm that they have suffered; States should also inform women of their rights in seeking redress through such mechanisms;
 (e)   Consider the possibility of developing national plans of action to promote the protection of women against any form of violence, or to include provisions for that purpose in plans already existing, taking into account, as appropriate, such cooperation as can be provided by non-governmental organizations, particularly those concerned with the issue of violence against women;
 (f)   Develop, in a comprehensive way, preventive approaches and all those measures of a legal, political, administrative and cultural nature that promote the protection of women against any form of violence, and ensure that the re-victimization of women does not occur because of laws insensitive to gender considerations, enforcement practices or other interventions;

Scale points:

Missing Data (there are a few countries which did not have enough data to scale)

0: The laws are consonant with CEDAW and are well enforced by the government; such enforcement is a high priority of the government.

1: The laws are consonant with CEDAW; these are mostly enforced, and the government appears to be fairly proactive in challenging cultural norms which harm women.

2: The laws are consonant with CEDAW, but there is spotty enforcement; the government may or may not signal its interest in challenging cultural norms harmful to women.

3: Laws are for the most part consonant with CEDAW, with little effective enforcement; improving the situation of women appears to be a low priority for the government.

4: There is virtually no enforcement of laws consonant with CEDAW, or such laws do not even exist.

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c. Scale #3: Inequity in Family Law/Practice Between Men and Women   MULTIVAR
MULTIVAR-SCALE-3:

Multivariate Scale #3 (Inequity in Family Law/Practice between Men and Women) MULTIVAR-SCALE-3: This scale, developed by Professor Rose McDermott, now at Brown University, seeks to capture how inequitably family law is conceptualized according to gender.  Intercoder reliability for this coding round (for information in the database as of July 2007) was 85%.  Originally coded July 2007; look for updates in the database.

The following variables are examined in the coding of this scale.

LRCM (Marital Rape) Practice 1; Data 1; Law 2;; AOM (Age at First Marriage) Practice 1; Law 1; Data 1;; MARR (Marriage) Practice 1; Law 1;; PW (Polygyny) Law 1;; ABO (Abortion) Law 1;; ATDW (Attitude Towards Divorce)--all available information;; IAW (Inheritance as Wife) Practice 1; Practice 2; Law 1.

Notes on Variable Selection for Scale:

  • CUST is not usually different from what is contained in ATDW info, and therefore is excluded because it is largely redundant for purposes of this scale.
  • IW, though originally included in the operationalization. is excluded because it typically does not add any additional information over and above the score the country would have received on family law otherwise, and its exclusion makes the components more manageable, and thus reliable.
  • We recognize that marital rape mainly distinguishes industrial countries from those which are less developed, but we find this to be an important aspect of family law regardless, and so include it in the scale.

Coding protocol:

  1. Where there is a discrepancy between law and practice, lean toward actual practice in the coding.
  2. When in doubt, err on the side of caution, being more conservative in scoring to take account of women in inequitable circumstances. Conservative means higher scores (3 as opposed to 2). To take account of women in inequitable circumstances refers to the fact that we wanted to take account of women who live in enclaves where their treatment might be worse than the in the dominant society, but as a percentage of the overall population they may only be a less than significant minority.
  3. Each component of the scale (ABO, PW) is scored independently, and then the arithmetic average is taken as the total score.  Where that average falls in the middle, divorce and abortion law are weighed more heavily
  4. Do not score a component element that either does not have sufficient information or whose information relies on singles cases, although it is fine to use information that discusses commonalities within specific regions or denominations within a country. 

Additional Coding Principles Used in the 2011 Scaling Effort:

  1. Bride price can be considered as a restriction on a woman’s ability to chose her marriage partner
  2. Divorce coding advice - We thought property was less important than custody and so we saw 1 as cases where women can inherit property and can get custody after divorce, and 3 where divorce really means women do not have a good shot at custody or property but 2 as where women may have one but not the other (can get custody but not property, or property but not custody).  In my memory, it was much more common, depending a bit on geographical region, for women to be able to get custody but not property but we always erred on considering it worse (3 as opposed to 2) if custody was harder than property. – Rose McDermott
  3. Abortion advice - China's one child policy which encourages abortion does qualify as a type of discrimination in family law because it does not allow married couples to make their own decisions about how many children they would like to have.  This is very restrictive but as I recall we did not incorporate that last time cause it looked like China was easing up a bit at the time such that if you had a girl you could have a second but that liberal stance seems to have receded, and I would now give China the lowest score on this aspect of (abortion) in family law. – Rose McDermott
  4. Use the legal age, excluding exceptions like parental consent or court order, to code the age of AOM law 1 variable. With this rule of thumb we would usually code countries as 0 because 18 is normally the legal age of marriage even though there are exceptions that can lower the age to 16 or lower.
  5. Areas where polygyny is illegal but common score as a 3.
  6. When deciding polygyny law variable if some group is legally allowed to do so under a different legal regime (ex. Customary law vs. civil law), then score as if legal in the entire country.
  7. When scoring MARR variables you can use underage marriage as a sign of forced marriage.
  8. When scoring LRCM(Marital Rape) you can use the prevalence of forced marriage as a sign or corresponding levels of marital rape.
  9.  When variable data about a region appears in several country entries, that data can be assumed to represent the circumstances within those countries.
  10. The existence of triple talaq as an acceptable form of divorce demonstrates inequity in access to divorce.
  11. In countries with a Federal state system, if one state is allowed by the Federal government to have unequal laws then the whole country is hurt by that state’s laws.

 

Description of Scale Points:


0: Legal age of marriage is at least 18, and most (>50%) marry over that age. Marriages younger than 16 are virtually unheard of.  Polygyny is illegal and extremely rare.  Women are free to choose their spouse. Women know their rights to consent and divorce and are free to exercise those rights without fear of reprisal. Marital rape is illegal and actively prosecuted. Women and men have equal rights to divorce. Woman can inherit property upon the death of a parent or upon divorce. Abortion is safe and legal and not imposed by the state on women (i.e. forced abortions are not an issue).  

1: Legal age of marriage is 16 or higher and most (over 50%) marry over age 16.  Polygyny is illegal and uncommon.  Women are free to choose their spouse. Women know their rights to consent and divorce and are free to exercise those rights without fear of reprisal.  Marital rape is illegal. Women and men have equal rights to divorce. Woman can inherit property, but laws tend to favor men in property rights, including asset division after divorce. Abortion is legal (although may not be available on demand (for the asking)


2: Legal age of marriage is 16 or higher, but girls marrying younger are common (up to 25%).   There is often an age difference between the legal age of marriage for men and women, such that girls are allowed to marry at younger ages than males. Polygyny is legal but unusual (<5% of women).  Girls may not have full rights to choose their spouse. Women may or may not know their rights to consent and divorce. Marital rape may be illegal, but is not prosecuted and practice often allows it. Generally speaking, the grounds for divorce for men and women are the same, although there may be exceptions (i.e., exempting infidelity on the part of the male, or infertility on the part of the female).  Divorce laws systematically favor men, and women do not have equal rights in child custody matters.  Abortions may be restricted, but there are many reasons for permission to be given, including financial reasons.

 

3: Legal age of marriage is 15 or lower, but girls marrying younger are common ( between 25-50%).   Age discrepancies in the average age of men and women getting married is often greater than 7 years or more,with women often averaging less than 15 years old at time of marriage.  Polygyny is legal and not uncommon (>5% but less than 25% of women).  Girls often cannot chose their spouse. Although obstacles exist that force women to meet a higher standard of justification than men, women can seek divorce but are generally unaware of that right. Women in certain areas of in certain ethnic or religious groups may either be unaware of their rights to consent in marriage and to divorce, or may fear reprisals if they exercise those rights; such rights may be very limited. Marital rape is not acknowledged in law. Divorce laws systematically favor men, and women do not have equal rights in child custody matters, or in inheritance law.  Abortions are severely restricted to cases where the life of the mother is at risk, possibly also rape and incest.


4: Legal age of marriage does not exist or allows girls younger than 12 to marry. Girls commonly (more than 25%) marry around the age of 12 or even before puberty.  Women are rarely asked for consent before marriage, and women are often forced to marry much older men in this way.  Polygyny is legal and common (>25%). Women must overcome tremendous legal obstacles to sue for divorce, while men can seek divorce for many reasons. Women may be unaware of their right to give consent in marriage or to divorce their husbands, may not legally possess such rights, or may feel that the exercise of those rights would bring dire physical or social consequences. Women are not awarded custody or inheritance. Marital rape is not illegal. Abortions are illegal (you may also take cases where states impose abortions on women, i.e., forced/coerced abortions). 

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Part II. WomanStats Data for Single Variables
A. Women's Physical Security
i. Health (See also Maternal and Infant Mortality and other health indicators for maternity in Section F)
a. Differential Access to Health Care Based on Gender   DACH
FOR MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE CARE, SEE MISA VARIABLE CLUSTER (MENTAL ILLNESS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE)
DACH-PRACTICE-1:

Are women restricted from full access to health care because of their gender? [For example, does the doctor have to be a woman? Do husbands ever have to OK procedures? Is there a lack of doctors specializing in gynecological/obstetrical care?] Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice? On the other hand, does the government have special programs targeting health for women, or do they sponsor education programs specifically for women about their health? What percentage of doctors are women? (This last might also be found in Area of Study Restrictions.)

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DACH-PRACTICE-2:

Do women have access to contraceptives? Explain degree of access, types of contraception, obstacles to access, etc. [This does not mean that women necessarily use contraceptives; access is what we are looking for here. Also include information on emergency contraceptives.]

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DACH-PRACTICE-3:

Are there differences in how disabled men and disabled women are treated?

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DACH-LAW-1:

Are there laws concerning differential access to health care for men and women (disabled or not)?

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DACH-DATA-1:

What is the life expectancy of women and men? Mortality/morbidity rates disaggregated by gender?

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DACH-SCALE-1:

Female Life Expectancy, Ordinal Ranking

0: Female life expectancy is between 48 and 53 years

1: Female life expectancy is between 54 and 62 years

2: Female life expectancy is between 63 and 70 years

3: Female life expectancy is between 71 and 78 years

4: Female life expectancy is between 79 and 86 years

99: Missing Data

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DACH-SCALE-2:

Difference Between Female and Male Life Expectancy

0: The difference between female and male life expectancy is between 9 and 12 years

1: The difference between female and male life expectancy is between 4 and 8 years

2: The difference between female and male life expectancy is between -1 and 3 years

99: Missing Data

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b. Infibulation/FGM/Other Mutilations   INFIB
INFIB-PRACTICE-1:

What is the attitude toward these practices, and how are laws against them enforced? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice? Are there reasons given for the practice?

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INFIB-LAW-1:

What are the laws regarding these practices? Also, are there any government policies aimed at mitigating these practices?

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INFIB-DATA-1:

What is the most frequent type of infibulation / FGC practiced, if any? What other types of practices exist within the society? Include practices that mutilate female anatomy besides traditional FGC; for example, “breast ironing” in West Africa.

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INFIB-DATA-2:

Provide prevalence data here. Among other relevant pieces of information, such as actual percentages of women circumcised/infibulated, you may also indicate relative prevalence of these practices based on three categories— (1) frequent or common, (2) occasional (not rare) and regional only, and (3) rare or never.

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INFIB-SCALE-1:

(Female Circumcision Prevalence): Originally coded July 2007 (look for updates in database). Professor Rose McDermott's Scale of Female Circumcision Prevalance: Designed to provide a scale for the prevalence of female genital mutilation in a given state. This data is derived from Womanstats variable Infib Practice 1, Data 1, and Data 2. Note that this scale attempts to be more precise than INFIB Data 1, in that it assigns percentage prevalence numbers within a larger ordinal scale, but is not an interval scale, as is INFIB Scale 2. Note about scaling: Only in the case of disagreements between our scalers about how a country should be coded, we take the higher score.

0: essentially never

1: rare or limited to particular ethnic minority enclaves

2: 11-25% of women have had their genitals cut

3: 26-50% of women have had their genitals cut

4: more than half of women have had their genitals cut

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INFIB-SCALE-2:

(Female Circumcision Percentages): Originally coded July 2007 (look for updates in database). Professor Rose McDermott's scale of the percentage of women who have been circumcised: FGM. Designed to provide quantitative data on the percentage of women who have been genitally cut in a given state. Note that within any given state there may be regional, religious or ethnic differences in the practice. Where such discrepancies exist, the number representative of the group with the greater proportion of the population was used, but in those cases it must be understood that greater or lesser percentages may exist among other groups in a society. (Based on WomanStats variable INFIB DATA 2.)

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c. Caloric Intake   CIWM
CALORIE INTAKE/BMI OF WOMEN VS. MEN
CIWM-PRACTICE-1:

Is there a difference in gender-normed caloric consumption or BMI between men and women in society, and if so, does it indicate a preference towards men or women?

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CIWM-PRACTICE-1:

Is there a difference in gender-normed caloric consumption or BMI between men and women in society, and if so, does it indicate a preference towards men or women?

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CIWM-DATA-1:

How many calories do females consume compared to males? Compare BMI of men and women in society? (These will have to be gender-normed for comparison purposes)

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d. Menarche Average Age of Onset   MAAO
MAAO-PRACTICE-1:

Are there rituals, observances, or celebrations that attend the onset of menarche?

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MAAO-DATA-1:

What is the average age of menarche? If comparatively high or low, are there environmental or social conditions that appear to affect the age of menarche in this country?

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e. Issues with STDs   ISTD
ISTD-PRACTICE-1:

What is the awareness level of women vs. men in regards to AIDS or STDs? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in AIDS acquisition? What incentives or impediments to AIDS/STD treatment access (including access to drugs) exist, and what societal norms or governmental policies influence this access? Is access influenced by gender?

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ISTD-DATA-1:

What percentage of women have AIDS/STDs? You can also include information about most prevalent STDs here. What is the percentage of Women with AIDS and total AIDS prevalence? Compare to figures for men.

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ISTD-DATA-2:

What is the trajectory of the AIDS/STDs in the subpopulation of women and how does this compare to the over all trajectory?

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ISTD-DATA-3:

What is the overall rate of AIDS/STDs in the country?

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f. Issues with Married Women and STDs   IMSTD
IMSTD-PRACTICE-1:

Can a women refuse sex to her husband or require that he wear a condom? The idea is, can a wife protect herself from her husband whom she may suspect of infidelity and therefore is at higher risk to carry an STD?

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IMSTD-DATA-1:

What percentage of married women have AIDS/STDs? Compare to men. (See also ISTD-DATA-1.)

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g. Mental Illness and Substance Abuse   MISA
(NOTE: THIS CLUSTER OF VARIABLES WAS ADDED IN 2008, AND THEREFORE ITS CODING LAGS BEHIND THAT OF OTHER VARIABLES IN THE DATABASE.)
MISA-PRACTICE-1:

Are there differences in the incidence of mental illness between men and women in society? Are there differences in treatment or medication of mentally ill men compared to mentally ill women? Do not overlook postpartum depression here. Also, are PMS and/or other gynecological disorders considered mental illnesses? Can you characterize the level of support/funding for mental health care by the government, especially as concerns women?

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MISA-PRACTICE-2:

Are there differences in the incidence of substance abuse between men and women? (These can be legal or illegal substances which may be abused.) Are men more or less likely to abuse certain substances than women? Are there social norms for tolerance of substance abuse by men as compared to women, or vice versa? Can you characterize the level of support/funding for substance abuse treatment by the government, especially as concerns women?

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MISA-DATA-1:

Place here any quantitative data on the incidence of mental illness disaggregated by gender. Do not overlook postpartum depression here.

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MISA-DATA-2:

Place here any quantitative data on the incidence of substance abuse disaggregated by gender.

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h. Potentially Harmful Beauty Practices   PHBP
(NOTE: THIS CLUSTER OF VARIABLES WAS ADDED IN 2008, AND THEREFORE ITS CODING LAGS BEHIND THAT OF OTHER VARIABLES IN THE DATABASE.)
PHBP-PRACTICE-1:

Describe beauty customs that may affect the health and wellbeing of women. Discuss the level of social pressure to adhere to these customs. (Do not put infibulation/female genital cutting here; we are not discussing purity practices in this variable, but rather beauty practices.) You can include discussion of eating disorders here if they are linked to societal norms of beautiful weight. Typically, we have put breast ironing in INFIB, since its purpose is safety, not beauty.

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PHBP-PRACTICE-2:

Discuss government or NGO initiatives and support for women who do not conform or wish to cease conforming to these harmful beauty practices.

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PHBP-LAW-1:

Does the government outlaw or sanction or regulate potentially harmful beauty practices?

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PHBP-DATA-1:

Place here any quantitative data on incidence of particular beauty practices that may be potentially harmful to women.

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ii. Violence (See Section I.ii for Domestic Violence and Female Infanticide)
a. Rape and Sexual Assault   LRW
(ALSO SEE EWCMS AND GEW FOR RAPE IN AND BY THE MILITARY AND OTHER ARMED GROUPS)
LRW-PRACTICE-1:

Are laws against rape and sexual assault enforced? [Include conviction and incarceration rates.] Are reasons given for the prevalence of rape and sexual assault in this country?

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LRW-PRACTICE-2:

Are there taboos against reporting rape or sexual assault? [Include elements that work to fight against those taboos, such as women’s shelters, hotlines, etc.]

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LRW-PRACTICE-3:

Can a woman be killed (i.e., honor killings) or otherwise punished if she is raped or sexually assaulted– even if she is obviously innocent? Can a woman be forced by her society to marry her rapist for the sake of honor, whether or not that practice is legal? (See LRW LAW 4)

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LRW-LAW-1:

Are there laws against rape and sexual assault? Is there a law against statutory rape, and what is the age of consent cut-off for statutory rape?

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LRW-LAW-2:

What are the punishments and how is fault decided?

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LRW-LAW-3:

Who can be a legal witness [e.g., must the witness be a male?] and does the woman’s testimony count? Consider other factors, such as whether the court looks at the woman’s sexual history or dress, etc.

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LRW-LAW-4:

Are there laws in the country absolving a rape perpetrator if they marry or agree to marry their victim?

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LRW-DATA-1:

How prevalent is rape and sexual assault? [Look for incidence, qualitative, or quantitative information.]

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LRW-SCALE-1:

(SEXUAL ASSAULT): First and ONLY coding was July 2007 (Superseded by Scales 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 in 2011).. Professor Rose McDermott's Scale on Sexual Assault: Designed to provide quantitative data on the percentage of women who have been victimized by sexual assault. This is often from an in house study and so it is likely an underreport of actual incidence because many women may not be aware or admit to such practices, especially if their perpetrator is present at the interview. Most often this question asks about all forms of sexual assault, and thus often encompasses sexual assaults that fall short of technical rape. This data was derived from Womanstats variable LRW Data 1.

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LRW-SCALE-2:

(RAPE INCIDENCE): Originally coded July 2007; there is an April 2008 update, but then superseded by Scales 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 in 2011). Professor Rose McDermott's Rape Scale: Designed to provide quantitative data on the number of rapes per 100,000 population. Where discrepancies existed in the data, I used the most recent data. Most of this data is from Interpol, although some figures are from the UN. Please compare these numbers across states with caution, because there is often severe under-reporting, especially in areas where associated stigma is great. This data was derived from Womanstats variable LRW Data 1.

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LRW-SCALE-3:

(RAPE CONVICTIONS): First and ONLY coding was July 2007 (Superseded by Scales 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 in 2011). Professor Rose McDermott's Rape Conviction Scale: Designed to provide quantitative data on the rate of convictions for rape per 1,000 population. This data was derived from Womanstats variable LRW Data 1.

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LRW-SCALE-4:

(PREVALENCE, CULTURE, AND LEGALITY OF RAPE): Original coding October 2011, encompassing information dated 2005-2010. S. Matthew Stearmer's Scale of Prevalence, Culture, and Legality of Rape. Variables Examined: LRW Practice 1, 2 and 3, LRW Law 1, 2 and 3, LRW Data 1.

Purpose: The intent of the scale is to capture the prevalence of rape within the cultural context of likelihood of rape being reported and what is legally considered rape. This scaling process will help standardize the rape data in a consistent way so that international comparative analysis can be more reliably performed.

Subscores: The final number is a composite of three subscores. The first is the official reported statistic of rapes per 100,000 population per year. The second score is based on the strength of the taboos that discourage rape being officially reporting within a particular country. The final score is based on the inclusivity of the rape laws. Use the table (see below) to combine the three subscores. Subscore values are as follows:

SUBSCORE 1 (LRW SCALE 4): Official Reported Rape Prevalence(out of 100,000 total population). Since these are but reported figures, the user should understand that they may not be a reliable indicator of the prevalence of rape within a society. Users are advised to use one of the composite scales instead (LRW SCALE 7 or 8).

0 – 0/100,000

1 – 1-10/100,000

2 – 11-30/100,000

3 – 31-60/100,000

4 – >60/100,000

 

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LRW-SCALE-5:

(PREVALENCE, CULTURE, AND LEGALITY OF RAPE): Original coding October 2011, encompassing information dated 2005-2010. S. Matthew Stearmer's Scale of Prevalence, Culture, and Legality of Rape. Variables Examined: LRW Practice 1, 2 and 3, LRW Law 1, 2 and 3, LRW Data 1.

Purpose: The intent of the scale is to capture the prevalence of rape within the cultural context of likelihood of rape being reported and what is legally considered rape. This scaling process will help standardize the rape data in a consistent way so that international comparative analysis can be more reliably performed.

Subscores: The final number is a composite of three subscores. The first is the official reported statistic of rapes per 100,000 population per year. The second score is based on the strength of the taboos that discourage rape being officially reporting within a particular country. The final score is based on the inclusivity of the rape laws. Use the table (see below) to combine the three subscores. Subscore values are as follows:

SUBSCORE 2 (LRW SCALE 5): Strength of Taboos Against Reporting Rape

0 – Virtually no barriers to reporting rapes

1 – Some cultural barriers to reporting rapes

2 – Cultural barriers regularly keep women from reporting rape

3 – Cultural barriers to reporting rape are intense, but a woman is not under risk of possible physical duress if she does report the rape

4 – Cultural norms on reporting are severe (including physical punishment, exile from family, or death) and the woman may face this punishment even if innocent.

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LRW-SCALE-6:

(PREVALENCE, CULTURE, AND LEGALITY OF RAPE): Original coding October 2011, encompassing information dated 2005-2010. S. Matthew Stearmer's Scale of Prevalence, Culture, and Legality of Rape. Variables Examined: LRW Practice 1, 2 and 3, LRW Law 1, 2 and 3, LRW Data 1.

Purpose: The intent of the scale is to capture the prevalence of rape within the cultural context of likelihood of rape being reported and what is legally considered rape. This scaling process will help standardize the rape data in a consistent way so that international comparative analysis can be more reliably performed.

Subscores: The final number is a composite of three subscores. The first is the official reported statistic of rapes per 100,000 population per year. The second score is based on the strength of the taboos that discourage rape being officially reporting within a particular country. The final score is based on the inclusivity of the rape laws. Use the table (see below) to combine the three subscores. Subscore values are as follows:

SUBSCORE 3 (LRW SCALE 6): Inclusivity of Laws Concerning Rape

0 – The law considers date rape andother forms of sex without consent with known or unknown individuals (including spousal rape), drugs etc as still constituting rape.

1 – Legal definitions do not specifically name date rape, spousal rape, or other forms of non-consensual sex as rape. 

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LRW-SCALE-7:

(PREVALENCE, CULTURE, AND LEGALITY OF RAPE): Original coding October 2011, encompassing information dated 2005-2010. S. Matthew Stearmer's Scale of Prevalence, Culture, and Legality of Rape. Variables Examined: LRW Practice 1, 2 and 3, LRW Law 1, 2 and 3, LRW Data 1.

Purpose: The intent of the scale is to capture the prevalence of rape within the cultural context of likelihood of rape being reported and what is legally considered rape. This scaling process will help standardize the rape data in a consistent way so that international comparative analysis can be more reliably performed.

Subscores: The final number is a composite of three subscores. The first is the official reported statistic of rapes per 100,000 population per year. The second score is based on the strength of the taboos that discourage rape being officially reporting within a particular country. The final score is based on the inclusivity of the rape laws. Use the table (see below) to combine the three subscores. Subscore values are as follows:

COMBINED UNWEIGHTED ORDINAL SCORE (LRW SCALE 7) A single number was generated by using the following score rubrics examining LRW SCALE 4, 5, and 6 (in that order in the table) 


Scale

Scenario 1

Scenario 1b

Scenario 2a

Scenario 2b

0

0 and 0 and 0

 

   

 

1

1 and 1 and 0

0 and 0 and 1

0 and 1 and 0

 

2

2 and 2 and 0

1 and 1 and 1

0 and 2 and 0

0 and 1 and 1

3

3 and 3 and 0

2 and 2 and 1

0 and 3 and 0

0 and 2 and 1

4

4 and 4 and 0

 

0 and 4 and 0

0 and 3/4 and 1

Scale

Scenario 3a

Scenario 3b

 

0

1 and 0 and 0

   

1

 

1 and 0 and 1

 

2

1 and 2 and 0

   

3

1 and 3 and 0

1 and 2 and 1

 

4

1 and 4 and 0/1

1 and 3 and 1

 

Scale

Scenario 4a

Scenario 4b

 

0

     

1

2 and 0/1 and 0

   

2

 

2 and 0/1 and 1

 

3

2 and 3 and 0

   

4

2 and 4 and 0/1

2 and 3 and 1

 

Scale

Scenario 5a

Scenario 5b

 

0

     

1

 

3 and 0 and 0

 

2

 

3 and 1 and 0

 

3

 

3 and 2 and 0

 

4

3 and 4 and 0/1

   3 and 3 and 1

 

Scale

Scenario 6a

Scenario 6b

 

0

     

1

     

2

4 and 0 and 0

   

3

4 and 1-2 and 0

   

4

4  and 3/4 and 0

4 and 0-2 and 1

 

Score Descriptions

0: Rape is virtually non existent (0/100,000 population reported). Score modified up or down based on the presence and strength of taboos against reporting rape and the inclusivity of the legal definition of rape.

1: Rape is rare (1-10/100,000 population reported ). Score modified up or down based on the presence and strength of taboos against reporting rape and the inclusivity of the legal definition of rape.

2: Rape is common (11-30/100,000 population reported). Score modified up or down based on the presence and strength of taboos against reporting rape and the inclusivity of the legal definition of rape.

3: Rape regularly occurs (31-60/100,000 population reported). Score modified up or down based on the presence and strength of taboos against reporting rape and the inclusivity of the legal definition of rape.

4: Rape is the norm (>60/100,000 population reported). Score modified up or down based on the presence and strength of taboos against reporting rape and the inclusivity of the legal definition of rape.

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LRW-SCALE-8:

(PREVALENCE, CULTURE, AND LEGALITY OF RAPE): Original coding October 2011, encompassing information dated 2005-2010. S. Matthew Stearmer's Scale of Prevalence, Culture, and Legality of Rape. Variables Examined: LRW Practice 1, 2 and 3, LRW Law 1, 2 and 3, LRW Data 1.

Purpose: The intent of the scale is to capture the prevalence of rape within the cultural context of likelihood of rape being reported and what is legally considered rape. This scaling process will help standardize the rape data in a consistent way so that international comparative analysis can be more reliably performed.

Subscores: The final number is a composite of three subscores. The first is the official reported statistic of rapes per 100,000 population per year. The second score is based on the strength of the taboos that discourage rape being officially reporting within a particular country. The final score is based on the inclusivity of the rape laws. Use the table (see below) to combine the three subscores. Subscore values are as follows:

COMBINED WEIGHTED SCORE (LRW SCALE 8) To generate the combined weighted score, the data the following rates were used to maintain a consistent distance between countries as the scale moved from ordinal to interval

Rape data sub-score is given a weight of 3

Taboo data sub-scores 0-3 have a weight of 4

Taboo data sub-score 4 has a weight of 6

Legal data has a weight of 2

The legal data dichotomous variable is recoded as 5 for sub-scores of 1, and 1 for sub-scores of 0

The ordinal scale value 0-4 was also added to the model to reflect the original value and overall quality of the nation on these variables. It has no additional weight.

This total was divided by 10 to achieve a roughly 5 point range in the internal scale.

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b. Familial Sexual Assault: Marital Rape/Incest   LRCM
LRCM-PRACTICE-1:

Are laws against marital rape enforced? [include conviction and incarceration rates.]

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LRCM-PRACTICE-2:

Are laws against incest enforced? [include conviction and incarceration rates.] (Note: This variable was added in 2009, and therefore its coding lags behind that of other variables in the database.)

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LRCM-LAW-1:

Is rape sufficient grounds for divorce? [This includes two questions—(1) if a woman is raped by another man, can her husband divorce her on those grounds? and (2) if a wife is raped by her husband, does she have the right to divorce him?

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LRCM-LAW-2:

Are there laws against marital rape?

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LRCM-LAW-3:

Are there laws against incest? (Note: This variables was added in 2009, and therefore its coding lags behind that of other variables in the database.)

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LRCM-DATA-1:

How prevalent is marital rape? [Look for incidence, qualitative, or quantitative data.]

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LRCM-DATA-2:

How prevalent is incest? [Look for incidence, qualitative, or quantitative data.]

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c. Suicide Rates of Women of Childbearing Age (15-44)   SUICIDE
SUICIDE-PRACTICE-1:

Are there indications that suicide is a common social response by women to domestic violence? Are there indications that women may be forced to commit suicide by relatives under the guise of "honor suicide" to avoid laws on "honor killings"?

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SUICIDE-DATA-1:

Use this variable to take qualitative information concerning the incidence of suicide, or other prevalence data that does not fit into the data categories below.

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SUICIDE-DATA-2:

(reporting women's rates only) Total female suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total population.

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SUICIDE-DATA-3:

(reporting women's rates only) Total female suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 female population

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SUICIDE-DATA-4:

(reporting men's rates only) Total male suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total population.

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SUICIDE-DATA-5:

(reporting percentage of women to men) This percentage expresses the female suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) as a percentage of the male suicide rate (ages 15 to 44).

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SUICIDE-SCALE-1:

(Ordinal Suicide Scale) Designed to scale the degree of sanction or pressure for suicide for women in a given nation, examining cultural practices that support suicide or pressure suicide (e.g., suicide as a result of domestic violence, "honor" killings, or "honor" suicide). (Note: Several nations have issues of immigrant populations that reflect different sanctions than the indigenous populations. Such immigrated-to nations will therefore receive scores that average the score of indigenous and immigrant populations [e.g. a nation whose indigenous population would receive a 0 score and whose immigrant population would receive a 2 score, would receive a final score of 1]). This data was derived from Womanstats variable SUICIDE PRACTICE 1.

99: Missing Data

0: No evidence of cultural practices that support suicide or pressure suicide (e.g., suicide as a result of domestic violence, "honor" killings, or "honor" suicide).

1: Some evidence of cultural practices that support suicide or pressure suicide (e.g., suicide as a result of domestic violence, "honor" killings, or "honor" suicide). (Note to coders: code countries a 1 if there is evidence of several isolated gender-related suicides promoted by culture, however, such cultural practices do not seem widespread).

2: Substantial evidence of cultural practices that support suicide or pressure suicide (e.g., suicide as a result of domestic violence, "honor" killings, or "honor" suicide). (Note to coders: code countries a 2 if there is evidence of many gender-related suicides promoted by culture and such cultural practices seem widespread).

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SUICIDE-SCALE-2:

Scaling of the rates of female suicide within a nation. This data was derived from Womanstats variable SUICIDE DATA 3.

99: Missing Data

0: Frequency low- 0 to .99 total female suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total female population.

1: Frequency medium- 1.00 to 2.99 total female suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total female population.

2: Frequency high- above 3.00 total female suicide rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total female population.

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SUICIDE-SCALE-3:

The additive combination scale of SUICIDE SCALE 1 and SUICIDE SCALE 2

99: Missing Data- either missing data in SUICIDE SCALE 1 or SUICIDE SCALE 2

0: the additive score of SUICIDE SCALE 1 and SUICIDE SCALE 2 is 0

1: the additive score of SUICIDE SCALE 1 and SUICIDE SCALE 2 is 1

2: the additive score of SUICIDE SCALE 1 and SUICIDE SCALE 2 is 2

3: the additive score of SUICIDE SCALE 1 and SUICIDE SCALE 2 is 3

4: the additive score of SUICIDE SCALE 1 and SUICIDE SCALE 2 is 4

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d. Murder/Attack Rates; Women of Childbearing Age (15-44)   MURDER
(SEE LRCM FOR MARITAL RAPE AND INCEST. SEE SUICIDE FOR SUICIDE. SEE DV FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. SEE LRW FOR RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT.)
MURDER-PRACTICE-1:

Are there socially acceptable reasons for attacking and murdering a woman, e.g., witchcraft, elopement, suspicion of promiscuity, infidelity, rape, etc.? Does the practice of honor killings exist within the society? Do these differ in comparison to murder of men? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?

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MURDER-PRACTICE-2:

Are there other common social practices that could result in the deaths or injury of women? For example, are acid attacks an issue in this nation? What about dowry deaths? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?

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MURDER-LAW-1:

Are there laws that provide for special penalties in cases where women have been attacked or killed as a result of acid attack or dowry murder or honor killings (or related phenomena)?

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MURDER-DATA-1:

Use this variable for qualitative information in the incidence of murder, or other prevalence data that does not fit into the categories below.

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MURDER-DATA-2:

Are there any figures on specific kinds of female deaths, such as dowry deaths or deaths from acid attacks or honor killings? What about rates of injury from such practices? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in prevalence? Also see SUICIDE DATA 1 and 2.

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MURDER-DATA-3:

(reporting women's rates only) Total female murder rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total population.

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MURDER-DATA-4:

(reporting women's rates only) Total female murder rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 female population.

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MURDER-DATA-5:

(reporting men's rates only) Total male murder rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total population.

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MURDER-DATA-6:

(reporting percentage of women to men) This percentage expresses the female murder rate (ages 15 to 44) as a percentage of the male murder rate (ages 15 to 44).

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MURDER-SCALE-1:

(Ordinal Murder Scale) Designed to scale the sanction of or pressure for female murder in a given state, examining cultural/social practices that condone murder and/or injuring of women. This includes murder as a result of accused witchcraft, elopement, suspicion of promiscuity, infidelity, rape, "honor" killings, religious or ethnic practices, dowry deaths, acid attacks, etc. (Note: Several nations have issues of immigrant populations that reflect different sanctions than the indigenous populations. Such immigrated-to nations will therefore receive scores that average the score of indigenous and immigrant populations [e.g. a nation whose indigenous population would receive a 0 score and whose immigrant population would receive a 2 score, would receive a final score of 1]). This data was derived from Womanstats variables MURDER PRACTICE 1, MURDER PRACTICE 2, and MURDER DATA 2.

99: Missing Data

0: No evidence of cultural/social practices that condone murder and/or injuring of women (e.g., murder as a result of accused witchcraft, elopement, suspicion of promiscuity, infidelity, rape, "honor" killings, religious or ethnic practices, dowry deaths, acid attacks, etc.).

1: Some evidence of cultural/social practices that condone murder and/or injuring of women (e.g., murder as a result of accused witchcraft, elopement, suspicion of promiscuity, infidelity, rape, "honor" killings, religious or ethnic practices, dowry deaths, acid attacks, etc.). (Note to coders: code countries a 1 if there is evidence of several isolated gender-related homicides promoted by culture, however, such cultural practices do not seem widespread).

2: Substantial evidence of cultural/social practices that condone murder and/or injuring of women (e.g., murder as a result of accused witchcraft, elopement, suspicion of promiscuity, infidelity, rape, "honor" killings, religious or ethnic practices, dowry deaths, acid attacks, etc.). (Note to coders: code countries a 2 if there is evidence of many gender-related homicides promoted by culture and such cultural practices seem widespread).

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MURDER-SCALE-2:

Scaling of the rates of female murder within a nation. This data was derived from Womanstats variable MURDER DATA 4.

99: Missing Data

0: Frequency low- 0 to 1.29 total female murder rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total female population.

1: Frequency medium- 1.30 to 2.99 total murder rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total female population.

2: Frequency high- 3.00 and above total female murder rate (ages 15 to 44) per 100,000 total female population.

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MURDER-SCALE-3:

The additive combination of MURDER SCALE 1 and MURDER SCALE 2 is expressed in this scale.

99: Missing Data- either missing data in MURDER SCALE 1 or MURDER SCALE 2

0: the additive score of MURDER SCALE 1 and MURDER SCALE 2 is 0

1: the additive score of MURDER SCALE 1 and MURDER SCALE 2 is 1

2: the additive score of MURDER SCALE 1 and MURDER SCALE 2 is 2

3:the additive score of MURDER SCALE 1 and MURDER SCALE 2 is 3

4: the additive score of MURDER SCALE 1 and MURDER SCALE 2 is 4

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e. Sex Trafficking of Females and Related Practices Such as    TRAFF
SEE ALSO PROSTITUTION (IRP) IN SECTION D– SECURITY IN THE COMMUNITY

Trafficking may be either across borders or within the country. Note that we do have a Prostitution variable cluster (IRP) which may duplicate some of the information here. Furthermore, some variables in this cluster, such as TRAFF LAW 2 and 3, focus on trafficking across borders. Phenomena included in this variable include sex trafficking, mail order brides, procreative trafficking, etc. It would also include slavery (such as ritual slavery), and barter of women (such as women as payment for debts).

TRAFF-PRACTICE-1:

Are the laws against trafficking enforced? Are there policies or programs to prevent trafficking? What reintegration policies does the government implement to assist women removed from trafficking so they will be less likely to become a victim again? Do NGOs have programs to facilitate rehabilitation/reintegration? [Include institutions / resources available to combat trafficking. Don’t include specific case studies; instead, summarize them—e.g. “we have seen some convictions in the data.”] Remember to try and distinguish trafficking from domestic prostitution, which is dealt with in Section D-Security in the Community.

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TRAFF-PRACTICE-2:

What are the practices exactly? [These could include information regarding mail order brides, procreative trafficking, prostitutes, ages targeted, presence or lack of deception. Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?] Include information on domestic wife renting.

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TRAFF-PRACTICE-3:

Are victims deported or otherwise punished? Also see variable on Asylum for Women.

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TRAFF-LAW-1:

Are there laws against the trafficking of people—especially women and children? Remember that there are various forms of trafficking, such as sex trafficking, procreative trafficking, mail order brides, etc. [Include laws that are not specifically designed to stop trafficking, but that still apply—e.g. kidnapping, prostitution, regulation of surrogacy, etc.] What are the punishments? Are there legal barriers—such as certain types of proof or witnesses needed?

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TRAFF-LAW-2:

Are there laws against the nation’s citizens engaging in sex trafficking or procreative trafficking or using sex slaves in other countries?

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TRAFF-LAW-3:

Is there governmental support for trafficked women, such as third party hosting of trafficked women who cannot be repatriated? Is asylum available to victims of trafficking?

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TRAFF-DATA-1:

What is the prevalence of trafficking? You may include different types of trafficking, such as procreative trafficking. Try to distinguish between sex trafficking and domestic prostitution, which is dealt with in Section D-Security in the Community.

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TRAFF-SCALE-1:

Originally coded January 2007 (look for updates in database). Professor Valerie Hudson's Scale of Trafficking, based on all WomanStats TRAFF variables (practice, law data). General notes to coders:

a) Remember to keep prostitution and trafficking separate in your mind!

b) Where there has been a war/invasion, and all of our data is from before that event, do not code the country.

c) In general, you are looking at Tier ranking, practice, law, enforcement, and data. You must have information on at least 2 of these to give a scoring. If you do not have at least 2 of these, do not score the country.

d) Do not rely on information that is not in the database, and do not compare countries as you are ranking them, e.g., “I think Iran is worse than Jordan, so I will score it higher.”

Scale Point 0: There are laws against trafficking in the country and into or from other countries. These laws are enforced. The country is in full compliance (ranking of 1) with the Trafficking Persons act of 2000. Trafficking appears to be rare. You cannot move from a Tier 2 ranking to a Tier 1 ranking over consecutive State Department reports and be scored as a 0 immediately after the assignment of the Tier 1 ranking. Some time must elapse to see how the situation evolves, and so the country should be coded as a 1.

Scale Point 1: There are laws against trafficking in the country and into or from other countries. These laws are enforced, but either enforcement is becoming more lax over time or reports of significant trafficking undetected by authorities is increasing. In other words, though a Tier 1 country, there appear to be growing problems. The country is in full compliance (ranking of 1) with the Trafficking Persons act of 2000. For countries in which prostitution is legal, the country can still be scored as a 1 if they have taken strong measures to insure that the prostitution is not entangled with trafficking.

Scale Point 2: There are laws against trafficking in the country. (If the country only has laws about prostitution, slavery, etc., but no laws against trafficking per se, they cannot be coded as a 2.) These laws are not always enforced. The country is in non compliance (ranking of 2) with the Trafficking Persons act of 2000 but efforts are being made to comply.

Scale Point 3: There are limited laws against trafficking in the country. The country is in non compliance (ranking of 2) with the Trafficking Persons act of 2000 and only limited/marginal efforts are not being made to comply.

Scale Point 4: There are no laws against trafficking in the country, or from or into the country. The country is not in compliance (ranking of 3) with the Trafficking Persons act of 2000. Victims are not supported in any way. The government may even benefit from and therefore facilitate trafficking.

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f. Labor/Domestic Servant Trafficking/Migration    LDS
(NOTE: THIS CLUSTER INCLUDES INFORMATION ON BOTH IN-COUNTRY AND CROSS-BORDER LABOR/DOMESTIC SERVANT TRAFFICKING.)
LDS-PRACTICE-1:

Is this country either a significant provider or consumer of migrant female labor, particularly for jobs such as domestic servant, nanny, etc.? Are there certain countries from which the migrant female labor comes, or to which the migrant female labor goes? Is there in-country labor/domestic servant trafficking?

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LDS-PRACTICE-2:

What problems concerning female migrant labor (cross-corder or in-country) have been reported, such as abuse or exploitation? If there are laws protecting such women, what is the level of enforcement of these laws?

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LDS-LAW-1:

Does the government provide any protection or education for women in such potentially vulnerable circumstances?

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LDS-DATA-1:

What is the prevalence of female migrant labor in this economy? This concerns both females entering this country to labor, or females leaving this country to labor elsewhere. Please include comparisons to level of male migrant labor, if available. You may also include prevalence of in-country trafficked labor/domestic servants.

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g. Unspecified Violence Against Women   UVAW
UVAW-PRACTICE-1:

Does source material mention that there is violence against women within the society, without indicating what type of violence is being referred to? (Please do NOT include specified violence, such as homicide, rape, domestic violence, etc. Specified violence should be placed under the variables dealing with that specific phenomenon.) (This variable was added in 2011, and so coding may lag behind that of other variables.)

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B. Women's Economic Security
a. Employment Restrictions Based on Gender   ERBG
ERBG-PRACTICE-1: In practice, are women kept out of certain areas of employment based on their gender? Do forced retirement or restrictions on night-time or other types of work exist? (Be sure to note general tendencies of one gender predominating in a profession. Note gender polarizations, e.g., where either women make up about 1% or less, or 99% or more, of an economic sector.) Are there other practices that discriminate on gender, such as forced retirement at different ages, or bans on female labor at night or in certain occupations? Look for sexual harassment practices here. On the other hand, does the government have programs in place to train specifically women for non-traditional employment? Does women's participation or lack of participation in labor unions affect employment practices concerning women?
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ERBG-PRACTICE-2:

(E.g., World Values Survey #78.) Does the society hold the general attitude that men have more right to jobs than women? [Add any other relevant data such as differences in unemployment rates.]

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ERBG-PRACTICE-3: Are there customary hiring and/or promotion discrepancies based on gender? [For example, are promotions based on seniority instead of skill, which would often put women at a disadvantage?] Include here any figures on percentages of women in high-ranking managerial positions in business or other types of organizations such as NGOs.
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ERBG-LAW-1: Are women legally kept out of certain arenas of employment based on their gender? [For example, does forced retirement policies for women, or restrictions on night-time or other work for women exist?]
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ERBG-LAW-2: Are there legal hiring discrepancies based on gender? Are there laws against sexual harassment or discrimination in the workplace?
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ERBG-DATA-1: Is there an earning gap between men and women in comparable professions, especially those of high status? [High status professions might include professors, managers, doctors, lawyers, etc.]
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ERBG-DATA-2: What is the percentage of women in the workforce? What percent of the economically active female population is unemployed? Provide comparison figures for men. What percentage of top management positions are held by women?
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ERBG-DATA-3: What percentage of the work force is married - disaggregate by gender. We are looking to see if there is a drop in employment at marriage and/or if there is a drop when the first child is born.
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ERBG-DATA-4: What percent of active workers are engaged in full time vs. part time work - disaggregate by sex.
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ERBG-DATA-5: Include information here on women's participation in the informal economy. Are women excluded from normal markets due to cultural bias or gender concerns, but find a means to sell goods, services etc. outside the normal market constraints?
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b. Single mothers' economic status   SMES
(THIS INDICATOR WILL INCLUDE WIDOWS, DIVORCED MOTHERS AND NON-MARRIED MOTHERS)
SMES-DATA-1: What is the percentage of single-mothers in poverty? As compared to other types of households, including single fathers?
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SMES-DATA-2: What is the economic situation of female-headed households? As compared to other types of households?
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SMES-DATA-3: What is the percentage of female headed households? As compared to other types of households? Also include comparison of single mother household prevalence to single father household prevalence.
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c. Mothers' Unpaid Labor Value   MULV
MULV-PRACTICE-1: E.g., World Values Survey #116: "Is choosing to be a housewife fulfilling?" What would societal attitudes be concerning whether choosing to be a housewife is seen as fulfilling or not? Also, we want to know if societal attitudes suggest that being a mother is viewed as fulfilling.
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MULV-LAW-1: Does the state provide benefits [such as retirement] for those who stay out of the formal labor force to care for children?
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MULV-DATA-1: What is the estimated economic value of unpaid work in the nation (preferably disaggregated by gender, and expressed in monetary terms as well as a percentage of GDP), and what methodology was used for that estimation? What percentage of women are economically inactive in the formal economy? [These are women who, for whatever reason, have chosen not to participate in the traditional workforce outside of the home. Compare to men.] Do women drop out of the labor force at marriage or birth of a child or not at all?
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d. Caring Unpaid Labor   CL
CL-PRACTICE-1: Does the society expect specifically women to perform unpaid volunteer work or caring labor in order for the society to function well? (See also MULV DATA 1). (Note: This variable was added in 2009, and therefore its coding lags behind that of other variables in the database.)
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CL-LAW-1: Does the government give benefits to unpaid caretakers of the elderly and handicapped? [These would be women/men who stay at home to care—not institutions receiving government money. Benefits could include tax credits, etc.]
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e. Breakout of daily labor hours   DLB
DLB-DATA-1: How much time (and on what activities) does a women spend completing her required daily duties as compared to a man? This includes jobs in the public and private sphere as well as all responsibilities relating to the home. Please also characterize how rigid the gender division of labor is in this society.
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f. Urban/rural concentration of women/patterns of migration   CWC
(SEE ALSO TRAFFICKING ISSUES IN SECTION A, PART II.)
CWC-DATA-1: What percentage of women are located in Urban areas vs. the Rural areas of the country? Compare to men.
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CWC-DATA-2: What concerns are noted about high concentration in either location. For example many women in rural areas might not have access to health services, whereas high concentrations of women in cities may depress the job market making even useful skills underpaid.
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CWC-DATA-3: Does the nation have a significant influx of refugees? From where? Is there a significant migration of refugees from this country to another country? To which countries? Are there special issues concerning female refugees? How about internally displaced persons (IDPs)? What are the patterns of migration here, and are there special issues concerning female IDPs?
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CWC-DATA-4: Does the nation have a significant influx of migrants? From where? Does the national have a significant outflow of migrants? To where? Are there special issues concerning female migrants, such as suspicions of trafficking, FGM, polygyny, etc. among this population? Are there special issues concerning the fate of wives and families left behind by male migrants? For example, do women actually receive remittances, do the men marry women in the countries to which they have migrated (bigamy issues), etc.?
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C. Women's Legal Security
a. Citizenship Laws   CLCW
CLCW-PRACTICE-1:

What are the practices surrounding women’s citizenship? [This could include related issues such as the need for male permission to travel abroad, etc.] Be sure to include any definitions of citizenship. Does the state only recognize the family and/or the head of the family as the legitimate unit of interaction between the state and its subjects? We are looking for how a woman might not have full access to state institutions due to citizenship laws themselves, e.g., unable to use ration cards because they are not the head of the household. How does this compare to practices concerning men?

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CLCW-LAW-1:

Do women forfeit citizenship if they marry outside of their nationality? Men?

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CLCW-LAW-2:

Are women allowed to hold passports and travel? Men?

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b. Citizenship Laws Concerning Children   CLCC
CLCC-PRACTICE-1:

Is there any evidence that girl babies are less likely than boy babies to have their births officially registered, thus creating an obstacle to claiming rights as a citizen, such as the right to vote and own property, later in life? (This variable was created in 2014.)

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CLCC-LAW-1:

In dual citizenship marriages or liaisons, how is children’s citizenship legally decided, and how does this decision affect their status and rights? [For example, do laws favor father’s citizenship? Or do they deny the father’s citizenship to the children, thereby cutting the children off from the benefits of being citizens of the country they inhabit?]

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CLCC-LAW-2:

Does the law jeopardize birth registration based on the marital status of the mother? Can an unwed mother register her child? (This variable added in 2014.)

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c. Land Ownership and Property Rights   LO
LO-PRACTICE-1:

Are credit, businesses, property, etc. customarily withheld from women, even if they are legally entitled to it? [Include whether credit is withheld from women due to lack of assets. Also include whether a woman’s husband must sign for her to obtain credit, businesses, property, etc.] Compare to men. Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?

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LO-LAW-1:

Do women have legal access to land, loans, credit, and business ownership? Comparison to men? Is the government taking any special measures to advance women’s property ownership? Has the country signed and/or ratified any international treaties dealing specifically with women and property law, and what are the specific declarations concerning women and property law?

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LO-DATA-1:

Look for the presence of civil society groups (NGOs, grassroots movements, etc.) oriented to female entrepreneurship, economic participation, and land/property ownership. (See also NGOFW DATA variables.)

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LO-DATA-2:

How long have civil society groups (NGOs, grassroots movements, etc) oriented to female entrepreneurship and property ownership been in the country? (See also NGOFW DATA variables.)

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LO-DATA-3:

What is the percentage of land owned by females? What is the percentage of landowners who are female? What percentage of females are landowners? (Clearly indicate which of these questions you are answering).

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LO-SCALE-1:

Property Rights Practice for Women: This scale, developed by Professor Valerie M. Hudson and adumbrated by Jessica Hogstrom, seeks to measure to what degree women have real property and land ownership rights in practice (as versus law), and was added to the database in 2012. The following variables were examined in the WomanStats Database for this scale: LO PRACTICE 1, LO DATA 1, ATDW PRACTICE 1, ATDW PRACTICE 3, ADCM PRACTICE 1, IAW PRACTICE 1, IAD PRACTICE 1, PW PRACTICE 3. The scale ranges from 0-2, and is operationalized as follows:

0 (NON DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE): In practice, women have access to land, loans, credit, business ownership and other forms of property and rarely face discrimination. Women own, buy, sell or transfer property at will, without the interference of a man or the need for a man's consent, and regardless of their marital status. In practice, daughters inherit, and they inherit equally to sons, regardless of their marital status. Spouses together manage the assets of the family, and joint property sharing between spouses is practiced. The administration of their common property requires the consent of each spouse. Property acquired by the spouses during marriage is jointly owned and each of the spouses own, use, and dispose of the property, irrespective of whether it was acquired out of the earnings of the husband or of the wife and regardless of whose name is on the title and these practices extend to women in common law/customary/religious marriages. Women receive an equal (50/50) division of assets upon death/divorce/separation. When determining the division of assets, value is placed upon the care of children and other domestic duties in the division of marital property (perhaps in the form of economic or monetary value). Widows inherit half of the estate, while the other half is divided between the surviving children and this applies to women in common law/customary/religious marriages). Where multiple wives are legal, women have equitable property rights and receive an equal division of property upon death/divorce/separation for each wife.

1 (SOMEWHAT DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE): In practice, women have access to land, loans, credit, business ownership and other forms of property but frequently face discrimination. Women usually own, buy, sell or transfer property at will, and the interference of a man or the need for a man's consent is sometimes required, although their marital status may have an effect on their ability to own property. In practice, daughters frequently inherit, though they do not always inherit equally to sons, and their marital status may be an inhibiting factor. Spouses frequently manage the assets of the family together, or some other marital property regime is practiced. In practice, either spouse may administer his or her own property and the administration of any common property does not require the consent of each spouse. Property acquired by the spouses during marriage is frequently considered jointly owned and the spouses frequently have equal rights to own, use, and dispose of the property, irrespective of whether it was acquired out of the earnings of the husband or of the wife, although the name on the title may be an inhibiting factor for women and these practices frequently do not extend to women in common law/customary/religious marriages. In practice, women frequently receive a division of assets upon death/divorce/separation, though this division is usually not equal (50/50). The care of children and other domestic duties in the division of marital property (perhaps in the form of economic or monetary value) is not usually considered. Widows may inherit, but their inheritance is often less than half of the estate, shared with other survivors and these practices frequently do not extend to women in common law/customary/religious marriages. Where multiple wives are legal, women usually have equitable property rights and usually receive an equal division of property upon death/divorce/separation for each wife.

2 (DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE): In practice, women are not able to access land, loans, credit, business ownership and other forms of property. Women cannot own, buy, sell or transfer property at will. The interference of a man or the need for a man's consent is generally required, and their marital status is generally an inhibiting factor. Daughters do not generally inherit or if they do, daughters often give up their inheritance to another male family member. Spouses do not manage the assets of the family together, but rather this is usually the duty of the husband (or the head of the household, who is assumed to be male). The wife cannot administer her own property freely, and the administration of any common property does not require the consent of the wife. Property acquired by the spouses during marriage is not jointly owned and the wife does not have equal rights to own, use, and dispose of the property and these practices generally apply women in common law/customary/religious marriages. Women rarely receive an equal (50/50) division of assets upon death/divorce/separation. The care of children and other domestic duties in the division of marital property (perhaps in the form of economic or monetary value) is not considered. Widows do not usually inherit; rather, the property is automatically inherited by another male. If the widow does inherit but chooses to remarry, she risks losing the inheritance and these practices generally apply women in common law/customary/religious marriages. Where multiple wives are legal, women generally do not have equitable property rights and generally do not receive an equal division of property upon death/divorce/separation for each wife.

NOTES ON THE CODING OF LO SCALE 1:

  • Regional and minority group data is included in the overall assessment of the country
  • General or ambiguous data is only used as a “tipping” point if there is a close tie (highlighted yellow).
    • Examples: “The women in Bolivia face discrimination in owning property” – place in a 1 as ambiguous (yellow highlighted)
  • For land percentages:
    • 0 – Women own and have control of above 26% of land and credit
    • 1 – Women own and have control of 11-25% of land and credit
    • 2 – Women only own and have control of 0-10% of land and credit
  • For customary or personal law data, it is taken under the law scale when it is clearly codified, used in the courts, or it is stated that customary law takes precedence or is equal to/ over codified law. Otherwise, it is generally used as practice.
  • If there is a tie between scale points, favor the most severe number and data. (Ex: a tie between a 1 and a 2 would be given a 2).
  • For countries that cannot be assigned a score because of lack of information, assign them a score of “99”.
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LO-SCALE-2:

LO SCALE 2: Property Rights Law for Women: This scale, developed by Professor Valerie M. Hudson and adumbrated by Jessica Hogstrom, seeks to measure to what degrees codified law protects women's property rights, and was added to the database in 2012. The following variables were examined to scale each country: LO LAW 1, ATDW LAW 1, ADCM LAW 1, IAW LAW 1, IAW LAW 2, IAD LAW 1, POLY LAW 1. The scale was operationalized as follows:

O (Comprehensive Laws): The law requires that contradictory religious/customary/ethnic laws and practices be subservient to the law. The law requires women’s equal rights/opportunities to access land, loans, credit, business ownership and other forms of property. Women can own, buy, sell or transfer property at will, without the interference of a man or the need for a man's consent, and regardless of their marital status. The law states that daughters are legally able to inherit, and they inherit equally to sons, regardless of their marital status. The law states that spouses together should manage the assets of the family, and joint property sharing between spouses is required or is the default property regime. The administration of their common property requires the consent of each spouse. Property acquired by the spouses during marriage is jointly owned and the spouses have equal rights to own, use, and dispose of the property, irrespective of whether it was acquired out of the earnings of the husband or of the wife and regardless of whose name is on the title. (The government recognizes the property rights of women in common law/customary/religious marriages). The law requires that women receive an equal (50/50) division of assets upon death/divorce/separation. Value is placed upon the care of children and other domestic duties in the division of marital property (perhaps in the form of economic or monetary value). Widows generally inherit half of the estate, while the other half is divided between the surviving children. (The government recognizes the property rights of women in common law/customary/religious marriages). The law requires equitable property rights (and an equal division of property upon death/divorce/separation for each wife) for multiple wives where multiple wives are legal.

1 (SOMEWHAT COMPREHENSIVE/SOMEWHAT DISCRIMINATORY LAWS): 1-The law may imply that contradictory religious/customary/ethnic laws and practices be subservient to the law, though it may not be clearly stated. The law sometimes requires women’s equal rights/opportunities to access land, loans, credit, business ownership and other forms of property. Women may own, buy, sell or transfer property at will, without the interference of a man or the need for a man's consent, although their marital status may have an effect on their ability to own property. The law states that daughters are legally able to inherit at least some part of the inheritance, though the law does not explicitly require that they inherit equally with sons. The law states that spouses together may manage the assets of the family, or some other marital property regime may also be applied. Either spouse may administer his or her own property and the administration of any common property requires the consent of each spouse. Property acquired by the spouses during marriage is sometimes considered jointly owned and the spouses usually have equal rights to own, use, and dispose of the property, irrespective of whether it was acquired out of the earnings of the husband or of the wife, although the name on the title may be an inhibiting factor for women. (The government does not recognize the property rights of women in common law/customary/religious marriages). The law requires that women receive a division of assets upon death/divorce/separation, though this division may not be equal (50/50). The care of children and other domestic duties in the division of marital property (perhaps in the form of economic or monetary value) is not usually considered. Widows may inherit, but their inheritance is often less than half of the estate, shared with other survivors. (The government does not recognize the property rights of women in common law/customary/religious marriages). The law requires property rights (and a division of property upon death/divorce/separation for each wife) for multiple wives where multiple wives are legal, though the property rights granted to each wife may not be equitable.

2 (DISCRIMINATORY LAWS): The law does not require that religious/customary/ethnic laws and practices be subservient to the law, and may even state so in the law and in cases where religious law is codified, the religious law does not meet the international standards of CEDAW. The law does not require women’s equal rights/opportunities to access land, loans, credit, business ownership and other forms of property. Women cannot own, buy, sell or transfer property at will. The interference of a man or the need for a man's consent is often required, and their marital status may be an inhibiting factor. The law explicitly states that daughters are legally able to inherit, but the law also explicitly states they do not inherit equally to sons, and their marital status is often an inhibiting factor. The law does not state that spouses together should manage the assets of the family, but rather that this is usually the duty of the husband (or the head of the household, who is assumed to be male). The wife may not administer her own property freely, and the administration of any common property does not require the consent of the wife. Property acquired by the spouses during marriage is not jointly owned and the wife does not have equal rights to own, use, and dispose of the property. (The government does not recognize the property rights of women in common law/customary/religious marriages). The law does not require that women receive an equal (50/50) division of assets upon death/divorce/separation. The care of children and other domestic duties in the division of marital property (perhaps in the form of economic or monetary value) is not considered. Widows do not usually inherit; rather, the property is automatically inherited by another male. If the widow does inherit but chooses to remarry, she risks losing the inheritance. (The government does not recognize the property rights of women in common law/customary/religious marriages). The law does not require equitable property rights (or a division of property upon death/divorce/separation for each wife) for multiple wives where multiple wives are legal.

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LO-SCALE-3:

Property Rights in Law and Practice for Women: This scale is simply the addition of LO SCALE 1 and LO SCALE 2, for a more holisitc look at women's property right both in practice and in law. Since those two scales range from 0-2, LO SCALE 3 ranges from 0-4. (Note: This scale was added in 2012.)

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d. Legal Barriers to Holding Office   LBHO (laws)
(SEE ALSO SECTION G-WOMEN’S SECURITY THROUGH VOICE)
LBHO-LAW-1:

Are there legal barriers against women holding office? Men?

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LBHO-LAW-2:

Are there incentives or quotas for women office holders and candidates?

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e. Voting Rights   VOTE
VOTE-PRACTICE-1:

Are there practices or customs that keep women from exercising a legal right to vote? Look for barriers such as travel, illiteracy, fees, etc., in addition to problems with husbands or general cultural bias. Compare these to barriers for men.

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VOTE-LAW-1:

Do women have the legal right to vote? Do men? How do rights for men and women compare?

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VOTE-DATA-1:

What is the suffrage age for men and women?

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VOTE-DATA-2:

What is the percentage of eligible men and women that exercise their right to vote?

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D. Women's Security in the Community
a. Issues Regarding Prostitution   IRP
(SEE ALSO TRAFFICKING ISSUES IN SECTION A, PART II.)
IRP-PRACTICE-1:

(E.g., World Values Survey #209.) What are societal attitudes towards prostitution? [Include relevant data here from other sources too.] We are looking for the degree of acceptance of prostitution in the society. Also, is there any reason a woman would want to be a prostitute, i.e. this may be one of the few ways widows or divorcees can get by in society, etc. You can include other practice-related information, such as prevalence, regional/ethnic/tribal differences, etc.

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IRP-PRACTICE-2:

If the women are from different countries, are victims deported? (See also Trafficking variable.)

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IRP-PRACTICE-3:

In practice, can a woman prostitute require that a man wear a condom?

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IRP-PRACTICE-4:

What reintegration policies does the government implement to assist former female prostitutes and sex workers so they will be less likely to return to those occupations? What are NGOs doing to help these women?

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IRP-LAW-1:

Is prostitution illegal? Are punishments focused on the pimp vs. the women/victim?

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IRP-LAW-2:

Is asylum granted to women who have been exploited through trafficking and prostitution? (See also Trafficking variable.) What reintegration policies does the government implement to assist former female prostitutes and sex workers so they will be less likely to return to those occupations?

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IRP-LAW-3:

By law can a prostitute require a man to wear a condom? Are there laws that require testing of prostitutes for communicable diseases?

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IRP-LAW-4:

Does the government facilitate prostitution through legalization, through taxing prostitution or related services, or through providing special visas for sex-related industries like exotic dancing?

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IRP-LAW-5:

If prostitution is legal, are there minimum age laws?

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IRP-DATA-1:

What ages are common to begin prostitution work?

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IRP-DATA-2:

What is the prevalence of prostitution?

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b. Pornography   PRN
PRN-PRACTICE-1:

How socially accepted and prevalent is pornography? How does society define pornography? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in attitudes? Is there a difference between adult versus child pornography? How have attitudes/incidence changed over time?

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PRN-LAW-1:

What are the laws regarding pornography? What are the punishments, and how are convictions obtained (e.g., rules of evidence, etc.)? Is there a difference between adult versus child pornography?

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PRN-LAW-2:

What are the definitions of pornography within the law?

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c. Required Dress Codes for Women   RCDW
RCDW-PRACTICE-1:

What are the customary dress codes for men and women?

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RCDW-PRACTICE-2:

Are women customarily required to cover their entire faces (though not necessarily their eyes)?

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RCDW-LAW-1:

Are women legally required to abide by certain dress codes? Are men?

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RCDW-LAW-2:

Are women legally required to cover their entire faces (though not necessarily her eyes)? Are men?

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d. Segregation of menstruating/postpartum women   SMPP
(SEE ALSO INTERMINGLING VARIABLE BELOW)
SMPP-PRACTICE-1:

Are there social or religious customs that require women to seclude themselves from society during menstruation and post partum? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?

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SMPP-LAW-1:

Are menstruating or post partum women required to enter into seclusion or are they limited in their activities in any way by law?

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SMPP-DATA-1:

How long is the seclusion required and where are the women during seclusion?

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e. Intermingling of sexes in public   IIP
IIP-PRACTICE-1:

Describe purdah (seclusion) practices. [This could include whether a woman needs a male guardian to go outdoors. We’re using purdah here in a very broad sense of the word of restrictions on the free movement of women. This includes issues of travel mobility, such as the ability for a woman to safely take a bus alone to the next town, or to walk to school by herself.] Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice? Would women be targets of violence if they did not conform to norms regarding intermingling in public? In certain societies, this segregation may be viewed as segregating men away from women, rather than segregating women away from men (for example, men's huts placed far from the women); take that anyway.

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IIP-PRACTICE-2:

Are women harassed when they are in public spaces? Are they fondled and groped when venturing out into public? Is there evidence that the society recognizes this, perhaps by setting aside special buses and rail cars for women? (This variable was added in 2011, and so its coding may lag behind that of other variables.)

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IIP-LAW-1:

Are there any legal restrictions on women intermingling with men in public? [For example, is it legal for women to be in, e.g., a cinema, where men might be in attendance also? Is it legal for them to drive? Is it legal for women to perform publicly? Must they legally have a male guardian with them for such activities?

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IIP-LAW-2:

Are there laws against sexual harassment, such as fondling and groping when women venture into public spaces? (This variable was added in 2011, so there may not be much data for awhile.)

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f. Societal Engagement with Gender Issues    SEGI
SEGI-PRACTICE-1:

Are gender issues a topic of public discourse with society? Are there topics that are taboo? Who is speaking out on gender issues in society? Are there certain prominent government or religious figures involved?

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SEGI-PRACTICE-2:

If a discussion on gender issues occurs within society, how is that discussion received? Is it dismissed, a cause for anger, etc.?

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SEGI-PRACTICE-3:

Are those who discuss gender issues within society punished by society, by the government, by employers, etc.? Is the punishment different for women as versus men?

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g. Gender Indices (GDI/GII/SIGI, etc.)   GDI
GDI-DATA-1:

The GDI Score/Rank; be sure to include date.

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GDI-DATA-2:

The GII Score/Rank: be sure to include date. (Note: GII replaced GDI and GEM around 2010.) More information on how this scale is conducted is available here:  http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/gii/

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GDI-DATA-3:

This is the Societal Institutions and Gender Index compiled by the OECD. For more information, see: http://www.oecd.org/document/39/0,3343,en_2649_33935_42274663_1_1_1_1,00.html

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h. Women and the Media   WAM
(NOTE: THIS VARIABLE CLUSTER WAS ADDED IN 2008, AND THEREFORE ITS COLLECTION LAGS BEHIND THAT OF THE OTHER VARIABLES IN THE DATABASE.)
WAM-PRACTICE-1:

How are women portrayed in various media, including textbooks used in schools? Discuss women's presence in the media and/or the arts? Does the government or NGOs sponsor initiatives to change the portrayal of women in the media and/or the arts?

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WAM-LAW-1:

Are there any laws or government regulations concerning the depiction of women in the media, or the presence of women in the media? Or the arts?

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WAM-DATA-1:

Place here any quantitative data describing the portrayal or presence of women in the media and/or the arts.

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WAM-DATA-2:

Place here any quantitative information on internet access/cell phone usage, etc., of women as compared to men.

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E. Women’s Security in the Family
i. Family Law/Practice
a. Marriage   MARR
MARR-PRACTICE-1:

In practice, can a woman be forced to marry against her will? [This could include cultural pressure, arranged marriages, capture marriage, etc.] Please include any figures or estimates on the rate of arranged marriages or capture marriages. Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?

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MARR-PRACTICE-2:

(E.g., World Values Survey #111) Is marriage seen as outdated within the society? Even if marriage is not seen as outdated per se, do people even want to/see a need to get married?

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MARR-PRACTICE-3:

(E.g., World Values Survey #112.) Is single parenthood seen as acceptable in the society?

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MARR-PRACTICE-4:

What are the PAC (civil union) / common law marriage practices? Do same sexes enter into such unions or even formal marriages?

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MARR-PRACTICE-5:

Are bride price and dowries present? [Even if they are illegal, do they happen anyway? How common are they? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice? Are prices increasing or decreasing over time?]

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MARR-PRACTICE-6:

Are there religious and/or citizenship barriers to marriage? [For example, maybe interfaith marriage or marrying outside one’s nationality is not acceptable.]

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MARR-PRACTICE-7:

Are marriages typically patrilocal? Or matrilocal? Or nuclear family-oriented? Are marriages typically endogamous, such as marriage within a particular village, local caste, tribe/clan, etc.?

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MARR-PRACTICE-8:

Are marriages typically consanguinous (i.e., cousin marriage)? Endogamous in some way involving bloodlines? (See also MARR PRACTICE 7.)

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MARR-LAW-1:

Can a woman legally be forced to marry against her will? [This could include arranged marriages, capture marriage, etc.]

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MARR-LAW-2:

What are the PAC (civil union) / common law marriage laws? Can same sexes enter into such unions or even formal marriages? Can persons in such unions adopt children? Can single persons adopt children?

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MARR-LAW-3:

Legally, does the woman remain a minor in marriage?

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MARR-LAW-4:

Are bride price and/or dowries legal?

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MARR-DATA-1:

What is the percentage of women currently married and the percent of women ever married? Comparison to men?

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MARR-DATA-2:

What are the cohabitation rates?

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MARR-SCALE-1:

This scale attempts to measure how prevalent patrilocal marriage is within the society. This includes residency or expectation of residency for a married couple with the husband’s family. This data was derived from WomanStats variables MARRIAGE PRACTICE 7. (Countries were first scaled in 2012; check database for updates from this original coding.)

99: Missing Data

0: No expectation of living with either his or her family (no evidence that more than 5% of marriages are patrilocal)

1: Softening patrilocality, a young couple may be expected in exigency to live with his family. More than 5%, but less than or equal to 20% of marriages are patrilocal.

2: Strong presence of patrilocality; young couples are expected to live with the husband’s family, greater than 20% of marriages are patrilocal.

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MARR-SCALE-2:

This scale attempts to measure how prevalent cousin marriage is within the society. This includes consanguineous marriage for the purpose of keeping assets in the family and includes any cousin marriage for this purpose regardless of the distance of the cousin. This data was derived from WomanStats variables MARR PRACTICE 8. (Countries were first scaled in 2012; check database for updates from this original coding.)

99: Missing Data

0: Cousin marriage is rare and illegal and/or occurs in under 5% of the population.

1: Cousin marriage is illegal but not enforced and/or occurs between 5 to 10% of the population. Generally, this category would apply in situation where cousin marriage is occurring in ethnic or religious enclaves.

2: Cousin marriage is legal or has vague legality, or occurs in greater than 10% of the population.

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b. Age of Marriage   AOM
AOM-PRACTICE-1:

By custom, how young are girls (and boys) married? What are the youngest ages at which marriage occurs?

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AOM-LAW-1:

What is the legal age of marriage for both women and men?

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AOM-DATA-1:

What is the average age of marriage for both women and men? (Age at first marriage.)

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AOM-SCALE-1:

This scale attempts to determine the prevalence of underage marriage of girls, with "underage" defined as age 16 or younger. AOM PRACTICE 1 and AOM DATA 1 are examined to code this scale. (Originally coded in 2011; look for updates in the database.)

0: Sources indicate that less than 5% of girls are married at 16 or younger, or there are strict barriers to underage marriage, or that there is significant cultural disapproval of underage marriage.

1: Sources indicate 5-10% of girls are married 16 or younger, or there are low barriers to underage marriage, or that there is little or no cultural disapproval of underage marriage.

2: Sources indicate over 10% of girls are married age 16 or younger, or that underage marriage is normal/common, or that there is actual cultural encouragement of underage marriage.

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AOM-SCALE-2:

This scale codes for the degree to which the nation's laws prohibit underage marriage (marriage at age 16 or younger). It looks at AOM LAW 1, gauging the legal stipulations that would permit underage marriage. (Originally coded in 2011; look for updates in the database.)

0: Underage (16 or younger) marriage is rare and/or only granted with judicial approval.

1: Underage marriage (16 or younger) is not legal, but there is no government enforcement of marriage law and/or there are many exceptions to the law such as underage marriage only requires parental, not judicial, consent.

2: Underage (16 or younger) marriage is legal.

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AOM-SCALE-3:

This scale simply adds the scores from AOM SCALE 1 and AOM SCALE 2 to give an overal picture of the legal sanction and prevalence of underage marriage for girls in the nation. Underage marriage is defined as marriage at age 16 or younger. (Originally coded in 2011; look for updates in the database.)

0: Underage marriage (16 or younger) is illegal and there are very few exceptions with less than 5% of women married before age 16

1: Underage (16 or younger) marriage is illegal but there is little attempt to enforce the law, or 5-10% of women are married at age 16 or younger.

2: Underage (16 or younger) marriage can occur with parental consent and between 5 and 10% of girls marry at age 16 or younger.

3: Underage (16 or younger) marriage for girls is generally sanctioned by law and is not uncommon

4: Underage marriage is legal and over 10% of girls are married at age 16 or younger.

RSS
c. Widow Remarriage   WR
WR-PRACTICE-1:

What are the practices concerning widow remarriage [Is it necessary? Is it forbidden? Does a woman have input in the matter?]

RSS
WR-PRACTICE-2:

In general, what is the treatment of widows in society? What practices accompany widowhood? (Note: This variable was added in 2011, and there may not be much information coded until some time has elapsed.)

RSS
WR-LAW-1:

What are the laws regarding widow remarriage?

RSS
WR-DATA-1:

What is the estimated population of widows in the country?

RSS
d. Inheriting Wives   IW
IW-PRACTICE-1:

Are there customary practices that require the inheritance of a wife after a male family member dies? Do women have any choice in the matter? Are there practices whereby a widow is "cleansed" after her husband's death, and what are these?

RSS
IW-LAW-1:

Are there laws that require the inheritance of a wife after a male family member dies? Do women have any choice in the matter?

RSS
e. Access to Divorce   ATDW
ATDW-PRACTICE-1:

What are the customary practices surrounding divorce? [For example, must dowry or brideprice be returned?]

RSS
ATDW-PRACTICE-2:

Does gender affect one’s ability to obtain a divorce? [For example, is it easier for men to get a divorce than women? In what ways?]

RSS
ATDW-PRACTICE-3:

(E.g., World Values Survey #211.) What are societal attitudes towards divorce? Does it confer a stigma, and if so, on whom?

RSS
ATDW-LAW-1:

What are the laws concerning alimony and the division of assets (including land, home, and money) for couples with no children?

RSS
ATDW-LAW-2:

After a divorce, does the woman become a minor to another male?

RSS
ATDW-LAW-3:

Can a woman be divorced on the grounds of infertility?

RSS
ATDW-LAW-4:

Can a woman be divorced for bearing only daughters?

RSS
ATDW-LAW-5:

What other legal grounds for divorce are there? Can a woman even initiate a divorce and if so, under what conditions? Are these conditions the same as for men?

RSS
ATDW-DATA-1:

What is the percent of marriages that end in divorce?

RSS
f. Access to Divorce Concerning Mothers   ADCM
ADCM-PRACTICE-1:

What are the practices concerning alimony and the division of assets (including land, home, and money) for couples with children?

RSS
ADCM-LAW-1:

What are the laws concerning alimony and the division of assets (including land, home, and money) for couples with children?

RSS
g. Custody of Children   CUST
CUST-PRACTICE-1:

Are child support requirements enforced? Consider also the situation of illegitimate children and children born from common-law marriages.

RSS
CUST-LAW-1:

Is custody automatically granted? To whom—the husband or wife? What other custody laws are there? What is the situation of illegitimate children and children born from common-law marriages?

RSS
CUST-LAW-2:

Are children denied rights because their parents are divorced? Or because their parents are not legally married?

RSS
CUST-LAW-3:

Is child support mandatory, and if so, what are the requirements? Consider also the situation of illegitimate children and children born from common-law marriages.

RSS
CUST-LAW-4:

Are there differences in requirements for adoption of children, based either on the gender of the child or the gender of the adoptive adults? For example, perhaps a single woman cannot adopt a boy child.

RSS
h. Inheritance as Wife   IAW
IAW-PRACTICE-1:

Do wives customarily have inheritance rights?

RSS
IAW-LAW-1:

Are wives legally able to inherit? [Look for things like a 2:1 inheritance ratio—do sons inherit twice the amount daughters do? That their mothers do?]

RSS
IAW-LAW-2:

Can a woman inherit property from her husband if she marries again after his death? If she does remarry, does she lose the inheritance?

RSS
i. Inheritance as Daughter   IAD
IAD-PRACTICE-1:

Are daughters customarily able to inherit property, money, and assets from their fathers? [Look for things like a 2:1 inheritance ratio—do sons inherit twice the amount daughters do?] Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice? Is inheritance matrilineal or patrilineal?

RSS
IAD-LAW-1:

Are daughters legally able to inherit property, money, and assets from their fathers? [Look for things like a 2:1 inheritance ratio—do sons inherit twice the amount daughters do? Comparison to men?] Are daughters legally able to inherit property from their mothers?

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j. Double Standards of Marital Fidelity   DSFMF
(SEE ALSO ‘ISSUES WITH STDS’ IN SECTION A, PART I.)
DSFMF-PRACTICE-1:

(E.g., World Values Survey #209.) What are societal attitudes towards prostitution? (See also Prostitution variable.)

RSS
DSFMF-PRACTICE-2:

Are there cultural double standards about fidelity?

RSS
DSFMF-PRACTICE-3:

If there are laws against adultery or fornication, are the laws gender specific in terms of whom is prosecutes, or in terms of punishments, or in terms of enforcement of the law?

RSS
DSFMF-PRACTICE-4:

Does the society place a profound value on the chastity of female relatives? (Is honor of the family tied into chastity of female relatives? Are insults impugning the chastity of female relatives more serious? Do families or individuals undertake measures such as hymenoplasty in order to conform to standards of virginity? Are "virginity tests" given? Etc.)

RSS
DSFMF-LAW-1:

Are there laws against adultery, and if so are they gender specific?

RSS
DSFMF-DATA-1:

What percentage of married women have AIDS? Percentage of women with AIDS and total AIDS prevalence. [You can also include information about STDs here; please also see Issues with STDs variable.]

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ii. Violence in the Family (See also Section A for more indicators of violence)
a. Domestic Violence   DV

(Note: Domestic violence includes not only violence between partners, but also violence directed toward children in the household (child abuse) See MURDER cluster for honor killings and dowry deaths and attacks on women. See SUICIDE for suicide, including honor suicides. See LRCM for marital rape and incest. See LRW for rape and sexual assault.).

DV-PRACTICE-1:

Are laws against domestic violence enforced? [Include conviction and incarceration rates.]

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DV-PRACTICE-2:

Are there taboos against reporting domestic violence? [Include elements that work to fight against those taboos, such as women’s shelters, hotlines, etc.]

RSS
DV-LAW-1:

Are there laws against domestic violence? Are there auxiliary laws such as concerning illegality of firing a woman in a shelter or in hiding, providing health care or education for those in shelters or hiding? Are there special penalties in cases where women have been subject to acid attacks, attacks over dowry disputes, or have been injured as a result of honor issues?

RSS
DV-LAW-2:

What are the punishments and how is fault decided?

RSS
DV-LAW-3:

Who can be a legal witness [e.g., must it be a male?] and does the woman’s testimony count?

RSS
DV-DATA-1:

How prevalent is domestic violence? [Look for incidence, qualitative, or quantitative information; comparison of male/female victimization. Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?]

RSS
DV-SCALE-1:

Originally coded July 2007 (look for updates in database). Professor Rose McDermott's Domestic Violence scale: Designed to provide quantitative data, where available, of the percentage of women who have had lifetime experience of physical, sexual, psychological, verbal or financial abuse. If that data was not available, I used the quantitative percentage of women who had suffered such abuse in last year, which typically raises the number somewhat over the lifetime percentage. Where discrepancies existed, I used the most recent data. Please note that there may be high rates of regional differences in likelihood of violence within some states. This may mean, for example, that women are at differential risk is they live in an urban versus rural setting, or if they are part of a particular ethnic or minority enclave. Most women appear to be at greater risk if they have less education, for example. Some data did not include psychological abuse, while others did, so some data may not be commensurate across states. I used the broadest definition of abuse possible for available data (i.e., I included psychological abuse as part of domestic violence where such data was available). Please note that the data is much richer than these numbers indicate, and there are specific numbers, percentage of crime, etc, by state within the larger database. This data was derived from Womanstats variable DV Data 1.

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b. Female Infanticide/Sex-Selective Abortion    ISSA
(SEE ALSO SECTION F FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON ABORTION)
ISSA-PRACTICE-1:

Are infanticide and/or sex-selective abortions and/or sex-selective child abandonment practiced? If not, have researchers noted strong son preference or strong valuation of sons versus daughters? Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice? Do families adopt in sons in cases of infertility or a lack of male offspring, in order to carry on the patriline?

RSS
ISSA-PRACTICE-2:

If these practices are illegal, how are laws enforced?

RSS
ISSA-LAW-1:

Are these practices legal? If illegal, what are the penalties? Also, does the government provide incentive programs for raising girl children (see also GIC)?

RSS
ISSA-DATA-1:

How prevalent are these practices? [At a minimum, use ratings: (1) frequent or common, (2) occasional (not rare) and regional only, and (3) rare or never.]

RSS
ISSA-DATA-2:

Sex ratios (0-4), but take other sex ratios (such as overall ratio, birth ratio, etc.) as well.

RSS
ISSA-SCALE-1:

Originally coded February 2007 (look for updates in the database). Professor Valerie Hudson’s Son Preference/Sex Ratio Scale. (Based on ISSA-PRACTICE-1. DATA-1, DATA-2)

Important Note: In March 2012, we changed the scale descriptions of scale points 3 and 4 to take into account that some sources gave ratios precise out to a tenth of a point, whereas some sources gave ratios by rounding up or down to the nearest whole number. using the new scale descriptions, we rescaled ISSA for 2007, 2009, and 2011. We favor data from the US Census Bureau's International Database when we do not have official census statistics from a particular nation.

0: There is no son preference, and no abnormality in sex ratios, whether those be birth, childhood, or overall sex ratios.

1: Though a minority of the population expresses son preference, there is no enactment of that preference, so sex ratios are normal.

2: Though a majority expresses son preference, there is no enactment of that preference, so sex ratios are normal.

3: There is almost universal son preference in the society AND/OR one sees slightly abnormal sex ratios, whether those be birth, early childhood, or childhood sex ratios (Definition of slightly abnormal: Birth 107.5-109.0, or if no number is given beyond the decimal point, then 108-109; Early Childhood 105.5-107.0, or if no number is given beyond the decimal, then 106-107 (early childhood 0-9); Childhood 104.5-106.0, of if no number is given beyond the decimal, then 105-106 (childhood 0-14)) OR operator).

4: There is intense son preference AND/OR there are significant abnormalities in sex ratios, whether those be birth, early childhood, or childhood sex ratios. (Definition of significantly abnormal: Birth >109.0, or if no number given beyond the decimal, then >109 , Early Childhood >107.0, or if no number given beyond the decimal, then >107 (early childhood 0-9); Childhood > 106.0, or if no number is given beyond the decimal, then >106 (childhood 0-14); OR operator.)

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iii. Family and Society
a. Attitudes towards Families   ATFPA
ATFPA-PRACTICE-1: What are societal attitudes concerning how much emphasis should be put on family life? [e.g., World Values Survey #131]
RSS
ATFPA-PRACTICE-2: Describe typical decision-making practices within the family in relation to gender: for example, is paternal authority privileged over maternal authority in family decisions? (Note: Variable was added in 2008, so data collection lags behind that of other variables in the database.) Also note any differences in the allocation of money or other resources to the family by men as compared to women.
RSS
ATFPA-PRACTICE-3: Do norms of family decisionmaking extend to the influential institutions of society? That is, in societies where families are patriarchal, do men typically also make the decisions in business and government, whether or not women are officially present in the decisionmaking body? For example, old boy's networks, men-only social clubs, locker rooms, etc. may preclude the full participation of women in the actual decisionmaking, even though there may be women on the decision-making committee. Likewise, the inverse could be that more equal norms of decisionmaking in the family also extend to larger societal institutions. (Note: This variable was added in 2009, and therefore its coding lags behind that of other variables in the database.)
RSS
b. Children Born to/Raised by Married Couples   CBMC
CBMC-PRACTICE-1: What societal attitudes concerning whether or not children need both a father and mother? [e.g., World Values Survey #109]
RSS
CBMC-PRACTICE-2: Do single mothers face social pressure to abort, desert, or abandon their children? Does the society support ways for unwed mothers to abandon children, such as the provision of "baby boxes"?
RSS
CBMC-DATA-1: What is the percentage (or at least an estimate of the number) of children born to married couples? To unmarried women? You can also include figures on rates of unmarried pregnancies and unmarried teen pregnancies here.
RSS
c. Definitions of Manhood and Womanhood   DMW
(NOTE: THIS CLUSTER OF VARIABLES WAS ADDED IN 2009, AND THEREFORE ITS CODING LAGS BEHIND THAT OF OTHER VARIABLES IN THE DATABASE.)
DMW-PRACTICE-1: How does this society define manhood and womanhood? For example, is a male a man when he has accomplished something specifically, like solo hunting, job status, number of children sired, violent actions, sexual behavior, etc? Is a female a women when she becomes married, or when she has a child, or when she menstruates?
RSS
DMW-PRACTICE-2: Are there formal rites of passages for boys to become men? For girls to become women? What do these involve?
RSS
iv. Polygyny
a. Polygyny   PW
PW-PRACTICE-1:

Are “temporary marriages” (e.g., mutaa) common?

RSS
PW-PRACTICE-2:

If polygyny is illegal, do people practice bigamous / multi-habitation living situations?

RSS
PW-PRACTICE-3:

What are the practices surrounding polygyny? [Could include legal grounds for taking another wife, whether they are the wife’s consent at the beginning of the marriage, infertility, a woman only bearing daughters, etc.]

RSS
PW-LAW-1:

Is polygyny legal, and if so under what conditions?

RSS
PW-DATA-1:

How prevalent is polygyny?

RSS
PW-SCALE-1:

Rescaling and recoding of this scale was performed in 2010, representing the time period 2007-2009. Look for updates in the database. The previous coding was removed from the database to accommodate the wholly new scale descriptions. Polygyny scale by Professor Rose McDermott: Designed to code the prevalence and legal status of polygyny in a given state. (Information used to code this scale is from Womanstats variables PW Practice 2 and 3; PW Law 1 and PW Data 1).

Note: Where contradictions exist, privilege prevalence over legality.

0: Illegal and extremely rare. Multiple simultaneous cohabitations are also rare. In other words, monogamy is the rule, whether the couple have been formally married or not.

1: Polygyny is illegal and this law is enforced, but multiple simultaneous cohabitations are not uncommon.

2: Polygyny is generally illegal, except it is explicitly deemed legal for certain minority ethnic or religious enclaves, but this represents <5% of women being in such marriages. Thus, the practice remains uncommon in the larger society.

3: Polygyny is legal under customary/religious law (though it may or may not be illegal under national law; if it is illegal, the government does not enforce the law), but <25% of women are in such arrangements.

4: Polygyny is legal under customary/religious law (though it may or may not be illegal under national law; if it is illegal, the government does not enforce the law), but it is common (more than 25% of women are in such relationships).

RSS
b. Polygyny concerning mothers   POLY
POLY-LAW-1:

What are the inheritance laws in polygynous situations? [For example, would the child of the fourth wife get anything?, etc.]

RSS
POLY-LAW-2:

What legal rights do multiple wives have? For example, does the first wife have more rights than subsequent wives?

RSS
POLY-LAW-3:

Does a wife have the right to restrict her husband from marrying multiple women?

RSS
F. Security for Maternity
a. Care Received During Pregnancy/Labor/Post-Partum   CRPLB
CRPLB-PRACTICE-1:

Describe care given to mothers during pregnancy, labor, and after birth. [Include information like the percentage of births attended by trained personnel. Include info on fistula care. Are there class or regional or religious or ethnic differences in practice?] Such care can also be reflected in measures concerning rates of low birth weight babies. Discuss childbirth practices that may affect women's health, including such information as C-section rates, postpartum roasting, inductions, epidurals, postpartum diet restrictions, etc.

RSS
b. Maternal Mortality Rate   MMR
MMR-PRACTICE-1:

Does the state have programs to reduce the incidence of these phenomena (maternal mortality, fistulae, etc.)? Are there explanations for why the maternal mortality rates are what they are in this country?

RSS
MMR-DATA-1:

What is the maternal mortality rate? Maternal morbidity (ex. fistulae)?

RSS
MMR-SCALE-1:

Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births; numerical data only.

RSS
MMR-SCALE-2:

Ordinal Ranking of Maternal Mortality Rates. Originally coded 2010, with data ranging from 2006-2009; S. Matthew Steamer.

Scale Points

0: 0-10 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births

1: 11-13 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births

2: 31-100 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births

3: 101-300 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births

4: 301+ maternal deaths per 100,000 live births 99 Missing Data

RSS
c. Infant Mortality Rate   IM
IM-DATA-1:

What is the infant mortality rate? [Note whether this statistic is for the age group 0-1 or 0-5. Collect both.]

RSS
IM-DATA-2:

What are the infant mortality rates for boys and girls?

RSS
d. Mother's Age at Birth of First Child   MABFC
MABFC-DATA-1:

What is the average age of women when they give birth to their first child? [Extreme ages—as opposed to averages—can also be given here as long as they are clearly marked as such.]

RSS
MABFC-DATA-2:

What is the average spacing between births?

RSS
e. Percentage of Pregnant Women with Anemia   PPWA
PPWA-DATA-1:

What is the percentage of pregnant women with anemia? Compare if possible to male rate of anemia or overall rates.

RSS
f. Birth Rate   BR
BR-PRACTICE-1:

What are societal attitudes concerning what is the ideal family size? [e.g., World Values Survey #108]

RSS
BR-PRACTICE-2:

What are societal attitudes concerning whether women need children to be fulfilled? [e.g., World Values Survey #110] Does society devalue women who do not or cannot have children?

RSS
BR-DATA-1:

What is the birth rate? What is the fertility rate? Clearly mark the information as either birth rate or fertility rate, with the correct units given.

RSS
BR-SCALE-1:

Births per 1000 Population, Ordinal Ranking

0: The number of births per 1000 population is between 8 and 15

1: The number of births per 1000 population is between 16 and 24

2: The number of births per 1000 population is between 25 and 32

3: The number of births per 1000 population is between 33 and 39

4: The number of births per 1000 population is between 40 and 50

99: Missing Data

RSS
g. Government Intervention in Childbearing   GIC
GIC-LAW-1:

Do pro-natalist policies or anti-natalist policies exist? If so, explain them. [Examples would include payments, allowances, tax credits, cash payments, paid maternity leave, or policies that reduce benefits if more than two children are had, etc.]

RSS
GIC-LAW-2:

Are the benefits tied to employment or marital status or any other status?

RSS
GIC-LAW-3:

What kind of childcare benefits are available? [Include information on maternity leave—both here and under Law 1.]

RSS
h. Forced Sterilization or Childbearing   FSCB
FSCB-PRACTICE-1:

Is forced sterilization or childbearing customary, even if illegal? Take any incidence data here. (Don’t overlook vasectomy practice to compare men/women.)

RSS
FSCB-LAW-1:

Does the state force sterilization or childbearing? Are there financial incentives offered by the state to undergo these things? Are certain classes of persons subject to these laws and not others?

RSS
i. Abortion   ABO
ABO-PRACTICE-1:

What are society’s attitudes toward abortion?

RSS
ABO-LAW-1:

Is abortion legal in cases of incest, rape, or where the life of the mother is at stake? Are there barriers such as parental notification? Are there time limits on abortion? Is there state funding for abortion?

RSS
ABO-DATA-1:

Incidence of abortion.

RSS
j. Social Acceptance of Breastfeeding   SAB
SAB-PRACTICE-1:

How socially acceptable is breastfeeding? Are there government programs in place to encourage breastfeeding or discourage artificial feeding?

RSS
SAB-LAW-1:

What are the laws regarding breastfeeding? Has the government endorsed the WHO Code against marketing breastmilk substitutes? Are there laws concerning breastfeeding in the workplace?

RSS
SAB-LAW-2:

Is breastfeeding in public restricted at all? If so, where is it illegal? Is there an explicit exemption of breastfeeding women from laws against indecent exposure? (Discuss, if you wish, what the laws on indecent exposure are.)

RSS
SAB-DATA-1:

What is the percentage of babies breastfed at birth?

RSS
SAB-DATA-2:

What is the percentage of babies breastfed at six months?

RSS
SAB-DATA-3:

What is the average weaning age?

RSS
k. Artificial and/or Commercial Reproduction   ACR
ACR-PRACTICE-1:

What are the practices around artificial and/or commercial reproduction, (ie. in vitro fertilization, sperm donation versus egg donation, surrogacy) Are these practices accepted? Is it more socially acceptable for one gender over another to participate in artificial and/or commercial reproduction? Be specific.

RSS
ACR-LAW-1:

What are the laws surrounding artificial and/or commercial reproduction? Do these laws allow for one gender over another to participate to a greater extent, or have greater rights in these practices? Do these laws allow for or regulate commercial surrogacy or other commercial fertility practices? Be specific.

RSS
ACR-DATA-1:

What is the prevalence of the various artificial and/or commercial reproduction practices? Be specific.

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G. Women's Security Through Voice
a. Holding Legal Office   LBHO Practice & Data
(SEE ALSO SECTION C– WOMEN’S LEGAL SECURITY FOR LBHO LAWS; THIS SECTION ONLY HAS THE PRACTICE AND DATA VARIABLES)
LBHO-PRACTICE-1:

Are incentives and quotas effective in encouraging more women to run for legislative or elected office? Are they ever prohibitive? [Quotas could be prohibitive if women are only allowed to fill a certain number of slots, when—if allowed—they would actually be elected to more than those allotted. Or, sometimes female quotas are filled via appointment instead of voting.]

RSS
LBHO-PRACTICE-2:

Does the society generally consider men to be better political leaders? [e.g., World Values Survey #118]

RSS
LBHO-PRACTICE-3:

Are there practices or customs that keep women from holding elected office? Compared to men?

RSS
LBHO-DATA-1:

What percentage of legislators are women?

RSS
b. Government Positions   GP
GP-DATA-1:

Number or percent of women serving in high ranking government positions in the executive branch. Number or percent of women that have served as head of government or head of state. Differentiate between federal, state/provincial, and local government if available.

RSS
GP-DATA-2:

Number or percent of women serving in the Foreign ministry or Defense Ministry. Also, we are interested in understanding the government's attitudes towards including women in foreign policy and peace negotiations/processes more generally (especially in relation to UN Security Council Resolution 1325. For example, are women sent by this nation to other nations as peacekeepers? Are women involved in peace negotiations/peace-making, or peace-building plans and transitional governments? You may also include information on the composition and scope of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions as they pertain to violations of women's rights. Look also for women in ambassadorial positions or as other official spokespersons for the government.

RSS
GP-DATA-3:

Is there a government position (cabinet level) that is assigned to address and correct issues faced by women? Does the government publish statistics disaggregated by gender? Is gender training provided for members of the government?

RSS
GP-DATA-4:

If it exists, is this women-focused ministry headed by a man or a woman?

RSS
GP-DATA-5:

Are there institutions that help address the needs of women? This may include court liaisons that can prosecute cases without the need of the abused women to testify, or special courts to address women's needs etc. What is the level of funding for such institutions?

RSS
GP-SCALE-1:

Ordinal Ranking of the Degree of Representation by Women in National Government. Examines primarily the national legislature and cabinet positions as in GP DATA 1; information on the judiciary was not included because so little is available. Originally coded 2010, data ranging from 2005 to 2009; S. Matthew Stearmer. General Note: Use the most recent years of data; if you have conflicting data, prioritize your sources in this manner: a) official government figures; b) IGO reports, c) third party nation reports, d) NGO reports.

This scale involves a three-step process. (1) First assign an ordinal scale to percentage women in the national legislature, as below. (2) Then assign an ordinal scale to percentage of women ministers/cabinet members as well as an indication of their relative power within the government, as below. (3) Then combine into the final score using algorithm given below.

(1) Assign ordinal scale to percentage of women in the national legislature. If there is more than one house in the legislature, average across the two houses.

0: 40+ % women in the national legislature

1: 30-39% women in the national legislature

2: 20-29% women in the national legislature

3: 10-19% women in the national legislature

4: 0-9% women in the national legislature

(2) Assign ordinal scale to percentage of women ministers/cabinet members, including some indication of whether they have any significant power within the government or not.

0: 26+% women ministers

1: 20-25% women ministers

2: 11-19% women ministers

3: 6-10% women ministers

4: 0-5% women ministers

(3) Algorithmic combination of the above two subscales to produce the final scale point for the nation.

0 Excellent representation of women: 0,0 or 0,1 or 1,0

1 Good representation of women: 1,1 or 0,2 or 2,0 or 2,1 or 3,0

2 Mediocre representation of women: 2,2 or 0,3 or 1,2 or 3,1 or 4,0 or 4,1

3 Poor representation of women: 3,3 or 0,4 or 1,3 or 2,3 or 3,2 or 4,2

4 Very poor representation of women: 4,4 or 1,4 or 2,4 or 3,4 or 4,3

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c. Government Empowerment Measure   GEM
GEM-DATA-1:

GEM Score/Rank; be sure to include date. GII replaced GEM in 2010; GII is available at GDI-DATA-2.

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H. Security Through Community Investment in Women
a. Literacy Rates   LR
LR-DATA-1:

What are male and female literacy rates? How do they compare?

RSS
b. Women's Access to Formal Education   AFE
AFE-PRACTICE-1:

Are there miscellaneous barriers or incentives for women to attend school? [For example, education is legal, but customs or practices serve to keep girls from attending school—such as married or pregnant girls not being allowed to attend, distance from school, childcare responsibilities, chores, safety concerns, lack of female teachers or separate facilities, etc.] Also, is there any information on whether the quality of education (or educational facilities, or resource allocations) given to girls is different from that given to boys, especially in sex-segregated educational systems?

RSS
AFE-PRACTICE-2:

What are societal attitudes concerning whether a university education is more important for a boy than for a girl? [e.g., World Values Survey # 119}

RSS
AFE-PRACTICE-3:

According to societal attitudes, what is the ideal level of education for a man and for a woman? [e.g., World Values Survey #226] Compare this with actual rates to take into account cultural attitudes towards education. (E.g., , if the actual rates of education for everyone are no higher than a 5th grade level, it may not be a reflection of gender bias if women only have a 5th grade education.]

RSS
AFE-LAW-1:

Do females have a legal right to education? [This includes whether education is mandatory and for what grades.] Compare to men.

RSS
AFE-DATA-1:

What is the percentage of females going to school? (This will look at comparison of men and women at the three major levels of education ).

RSS
AFE-SCALE-1:

Ordinal Ranking of Discrepancy in Educational Attainment Between Males and Females (Secondary Level). Originally coded 2010, using data from 2006-2009; S. Matthew Steamer. This draws not only on the AFE cluster of variables, but also the ASR (Area of Study Restrictions) cluster, which is the very next variable in the codebook(see below).

0: There is less than 5% discrepancy in secondary educational attainment for girls and boys, and there are no area of study restrictions (in law or in practice) for girls.

1: There is either a 5-10% discrepancy in secondary educational attainment for girls and boys OR while there are no legal area of study restrictions for girls, there are some area of study restrictions in practice for girls.

2: There is either a 11-15% discrepancy in secondary educational attainment for girls and boys OR there are some legal area of study restrictions for girls and/or commonly practiced area of study restrictions for girls.

3: There is a 16-20% discrepancy in secondary educational attainment for girls and boys AND there are either legal area of study restrictions for girls or significant area of study restrictions in practice for girls.

4: There is a greater than 20% discrepancy in secondary educational attainment for girls and boys OR there are extreme legal or practical area of study restrictions for girls.

99: Missing

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c. Area of Study Restrictions   ASR
ASR-PRACTICE-1:

Are women prohibited or seriously discouraged in practice from studying certain subjects, even if the law permits them to do so? Are there other barriers, such as fear or social unacceptability or ostracism of women in a certain area of study?

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ASR-PRACTICE-2:

Are women prohibited or seriously discouraged from participating in school-related sports, even if the law permits them to do so? Are there other barriers, such as fear or social unacceptability or dress codes that inhibit such participation? Are there facilities for women in school-related sports?

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ASR-LAW-1:

Are women legally able to study any area they choose? [Do women have to study in a same-sex school, and if so are such schools available for all professions—e.g., medical, etc.?]

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ASR-LAW-2:

Are there any legal prohibitions that would support or deny women's participation in school-related sports? (For example, Title IX legislation.)

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ASR-DATA-1:

What percentage of lawyers, judges, and doctors are women? Also science and technology and engineering? [These professions are typically male-dominated and require high levels of education. It can be important for women to have access to female lawyers and doctors.]

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ASR-DATA-2:

Are there any figures on women's participation in school-related sports? (Especially as compared to men's rates.)

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d. NGOs Focused on Women   NGOFW
(SEE ALSO IN SECTION C, ‘LAND OWNERSHIP AND PROPERTY RIGHTS’)
NGOFW-PRACTICE-1:

Define the relationship between NGOs focused on women, and the government. Does the government encourage the formation of such NGOs? Do they work in cooperation with one another or are they antagonistic? Are NGOs generally from outside the nation or are they national grass-roots level organizations?

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NGOFW-DATA-1:

Look for the presence of NGOs oriented to females. [For examples, micro credit. The presence of such NGOs could signify a lack of women’s rights in this area. See also LO DATA 1, which examines NGOs focused on female entrepreneurship.]

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NGOFW-DATA-2:

How long have women-oriented NGOs been in the country? [If the NGOs haven’t been there long, women’s rights may still be lacking; if they have been there a while, hopefully women’s rights have improved in this area. Also, LO DATA 2 examines NGOs focused on female entrepreneurship.]

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NGOFW-DATA-3:

Does (and how) the government involve women in development projects within the state? These do not have to be specifically directed at women. The idea is to see if women, and particular their concerns, are being considered in the solving of social problems.

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e. Sports, Recreational Activities, and Continuing Education   SRACE
(NOTE: THIS CLUSTER OF VARIABLES WAS ADDED IN 2009, AND THEREFORE ITS CODING LAGS BEHIND THAT OF OTHER VARIABLES IN THE DATABASE.)
SRACE-PRACTICE-1:

Do women participate in community sports, including national-level sports that might lead to participation in the Olympics? Are there any barriers or any encouragement from the society for such participation? Does the government have programs to encourage women's participation? Are facilities for women to participate in community sports? (Activities for school-aged children should go in ASR.)

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SRACE-PRACTICE-2:

Are other types of recreational activities, including courses on life skills or hobbies or other non-professional continuing education courses, open to both men and women? Are there government programs to provide such opportunities for women? Are NGOs involved in providing such opportunities for women?

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SRACE-LAW-1:

Are there any legal prohibitions against women participating in community sports, recreational activities, or receiving continuing education (as described in SRACE PRACTICE 2? Are there any legal constraints, such as dress codes for women in sports?

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I. Women's Security in the State
a. Accession to CEDAW and Reservations   ATC
ATC-DATA-1: Date of Accession to the CEDAW convention. This should be the date that it was ratified by country. If it was signed but not ratified please make note of this.
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ATC-DATA-2: Number of reservations.
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ATC-DATA-3: What are the reservations? Which parts of the convention did the country remove before they would ratify it? Include the article and subject. Why did the country feel it needed to be removed?
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ATC-DATA-4: Accession to optional protocol, and date?
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b. Asylum for Women   AW
AW-PRACTICE-1: Under what circumstances is asylum customarily granted to women [For example, on grounds like FGM, one-child policy, etc.] Compared to men? (See also Trafficking variable cluster.)
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AW-LAW-1: Under what circumstances is asylum legally granted to women [For example, on grounds like FGM, one-child policy, etc.] Comparison to men? (See also Trafficking variable cluster.)
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c. Government/Subnational Group Exploitation of Women   GEW
GEW-PRACTICE-1: How accepting is the government and military of rape and/or kidnapping of women and girls being used as a weapon of war? Does its use vary by ethnicity? Forced labor of women/men? What about military forces sent as peacekeepers to other lands? Are there subnational groups, such as rebel movements or rebel armies, that use kidnapping and rape as a tactic of war against the government?
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GEW-PRACTICE-2: In terms of prosecution, how are the laws of the nation enforced—specifically, are there gender differences in prosecution under the law where women and where men are concerned?
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GEW-PRACTICE-3: Does the government encourage the use of women and girls as an instrument of the state? In what way? What about subnational groups, such as rebel movements or rebel armies? This is purposefully left general.
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GEW-LAW-1: Are there laws that would prevent the use of rape or kidnapping or trafficking as weapons of war?
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GEW-DATA-1: How common are crimes against women and girls, such as rape, during war? Indicate if there has been little to no potential (i.e. not at war in the last decade or so) and/or if there has been war- related rape, if it occurred under a different government administration. You can also include sexual exploitation of women by the nation's military serving as peacekeepers in another country, or exploitation of women by subnational groups such as rebel movements or rebel armies.
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d. Exemption of women from combat/military service   EWCMS
EWCMS-PRACTICE-1: If not legally allowed to be in combat, do women still serve in close combat (where they are in danger of enemy fire or otherwise in direct contact with hostile forces personnel)? Alternatively, if women are legally allowed to be in combat, are they excluded from combat in practice? (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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EWCMS-PRACTICE-2: Are there any indications that women in the military are not taken seriously? (For example, requiring a women to display a talent unrelated to their duties such as singing or dancing.) Not promoted to leadership positions? (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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EWCMS-PRACTICE-3: Are there practices that encourage or discourage rape/assault within the military (soldiers raping other soldiers from their own or friendly countries)? Are there practices that discourage victims from reporting rapes/assault, or that appear designed to cover up such incidents? Are there practices that encourage victims to report? (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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EWCMS-LAW-1: Are women allowed to serve in the military? What about in combat? Compare to military service requirements for men? Are women the targets of recruitment as well as men?
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EWCMS-LAW-2: Are women draftable (including military conscription)? Compare to men.
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EWCMS-LAW-3: Can women be required to serve in a combat position? [There might be a national service alternative.]
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EWCMS-LAW-4: Does the state recruit women into the police? Are there special female police forces?
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EWCMS-LAW-5: Are there laws preventing rape/assault within the military (soldiers raping other soldiers from their own or friendly countries)? Are there laws that protect victims/accusers and/or encourage them to report crimes? Are there laws that discourage reports? (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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EWCMS-DATA-1: How common are women in the military? How many hold leadership positions? (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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EWCMS-DATA-2: How common is rape/assault within the military (soldiers raping other soldiers from their own or friendly countries)? Indicate if there has been little or no potential. Include rates of reports and estimates of un-reported assault. (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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EWCMS-DATA-3: How often is rape/assault within the military (soldiers raping other soldiers from their own or friendly countries) prosecuted? Include data on cases that are dropped/dismissed. (Note: This variable was added in June 2012.)
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e. Exemption of mothers from combat/military service   EMCMS
EMCMS-LAW-1: Are mothers draftable (including military conscription)?
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EMCMS-LAW-2: If a woman becomes pregnant or has minor children, can she choose to be discharged or serve in a non-combat position?
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f. Differential Treatment Under Law   DTCP
DTCP-PRACTICE-1: Are there instances of codified differences in punishment based solely on gender? Do police treat women complainants and perpetrators differently from those who are male? Do police physically assault women, rape women, etc., resulting in reluctance of women to seek police help? (Look also at Practice variables under clusters such as Rape, etc.?) Are there different prison conditions for men and women that make prison life even more difficult for a woman? Are the jailors of women, men or women as well? What is the situation of children of women who are jailed, or women who are pregnant and give birth while jailed? Are there special morality police who focus on women, such as their dress or behavior? Note also that in addition to the police, this variable may also be applied to other government officials with whom women must interact.
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DTCP-LAW-1: Does the government allow religious tribunals or systems of customary law to adjudicate certain types of legal matters, such as family law concerning marriage, divorce, custody, support, inheritance, etc.? Do these religious tribunals/customary law panels judge according to a system of law that treats women differently from men? Is that differential treatment biased against women, for example, are men allowed unlimited rights to divorce while women find it very difficult to obtain a divorce? (This variable was added October 2008, so there may not be very much information coded yet. Check other, related variables for pertinent information coded before this date.)
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g. Recent Changes in Status of Women   RISW
RISW-PRACTICE-1: In the past five years, have there been any significant changes in practice or policy that indicates a desire to improve the status of women within society?
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RISW-PRACTICE-2: In the past five years, have there been any significant changes in practice or policy that indicates backtracking in the status of women within society?
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h. Constitutional Law   CONST
CONST-LAW-1: Is discrimination on the basis of sex expressly outlawed by the Constitution or basic law of the land, and/or does the Constitution or the basic law of the land expressly indicate that both men and women are equal before the law?
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J. Additional Data
a. Additional Data   ADDL
ADDL-DATA-1: Idiosyncratic Gender Practices Not Otherwise Categorizable: In this variable, you will find other gender practices which we could not fit under our existing variable categorization scheme.
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ADDL-DATA-2: Incomplete Information: In this variable, we place information that appears related to gender practices in some way, but is incomplete and therefore awaits further effort by our coders before it can be placed in the larger database scheme. The coder will indicate why the information has been placed here.
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